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Taken about 1855. 


.OF THE... 

Fort and Fannin Families 




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Astor, Lenox and Tildon 
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Table of Contents. 


Preface 5 

Memoirs of Martha Low Fort 7 

Memoirs of Kate Haynes Fort 40 

Death of Dr. Tomlinson Fort, 1859 114 

Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal. 

Tomlinson Fort, M.D. 119 

Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, 1885. 

Sketch of Dr. Fort 123 

By Judge Junius Hillyer. 

Battle of Twelve Mile Swamp, or Davis Creek 126 

By John Porter Fort. 

Public Life of Dr. Tomlinson Fort 132 

By George Fort Milton. 

Last Campaign First Georgia Regulars 146 

By John Porter Fort. 

"Uncle Joe"— A Family Portrait 191 

By Fannie Fort Brown. 

A War Wedding in 1865 195 

By Sarah Fort Milton. 

A Story of Arthur Fort 199 

By Sarah Fort Milton. 

A Story of Neddy Pace 203 

By Sarah Fort Milton. 

Fannin and His Men .V-'^-^f-""'-^"'-- 206 

Appendix 209 

Commission Tomlinson Fort, Jr 210 

Memoranda Furnished by Julius L. Brown 211 

Copy of Family Record (Fort) 212 

Copy of Family Record (Fannin) 213 

James Fannin's Will 216 

The Fanning Family 217 

Invitation from Mr. and Mrs. Clay 220 

Sketch of Nancy Allston 221 

Sketch of Wilkes Flagg 221 

Genealogy of Families Tomlinson and Martha Low Fort 224 

"K-^C i^ 



The memoirs of my mother, Martha Low Fort, were 
dictated to my sister Fannie, (Mrs. Julius L. Brown) 
and myself, in the summer of 1881, at Macon, Ga., 
two years before my mother's death. She was a 
modest woman, and it was only at our earnest solici- 
tation that she consented to relate these reminicences. 

We felt that the lives of our father and mother 
and the facts concerning the Fort and Fannin families, 
united by their marriage, were of such interest and 
importance to their descendants that they should be 
preserved. With much reluctance, and frequently 
interrupted by illness, my mother, then seventy-seven 
years of age, dictated her memoirs. 

She omitted much concerning herself, being dis- 
inclined to speak freely of my father's and of her own 
virtues, nor did she tell all that was known to the 
family of my father's long, varied and illustrious 
career. These omissions were due in part to her 
modesty, and also to a memory less clear than in early 
life. Therefore, in order to finish these reminiscences, 
and present the surviving members of the family 
more complete biographical sketches of our beloved 
parents, I have supplemented my mother's memoirs 
with much additional information that I possess. I 
have also added sketches, stories, and other matter 
prepared by different members of the family which 
throw more light on the Fort and Fannin families and 
especially on the lives of Tomlinson and Martha Low 
Fort. I believe that I am in better position to do this 
than any other member of the family, as I was longer 
and more closely associated with our mother and have 
made this collection of family history a work of years. 

Our family and those who knew them best have 
always considered the lives of our parents full of ben- 


ediction and an example to their posterity, and I 
thought that this volume might perpetuate the deep 
veneration in which they are held. My earnest desire 
is that it may inculcate in the minds of the younger 
members of our family an emulation of the virtues of 
their ancestors. It has been with this intention that 
1 have prepared these memoirs and the contents of 
this volume, and now present them to the descendants 
of Tomlinson and Martha Low Fort. 

I am indebted to several relatives for correct data 
regarding their families, and to my brothers, sisters, 
and my nephew, George Fort Milton, for their contri- 
butions, aid and encouragement. I regret that I have 
been unable to obtain an article from Brother Tom- 
linson, but am under especial obligations to him for 
valuable assistance and information received. 

I have been sustained in this effort at book 
making by the desire to gratify the wishes of my 
family, and a conviction, as far as I have been able to 
learn, of the truth of the statements herein given. 

Kate Haynes Fort. 
Chattanooga, Tenn., June 1908. 


Macon, Georgia, January, 1881. 

I, Martha Low Fort, am seventy-seven years old, 
and to gratify a whim of my children have consented 
to turn story teller and write, for their amusement, all 
I can remember of my own and my husband's fam- 
ilies as well as some of the incidents of my long life. 
True, I do not hold the pen myself but dictate to my 


To begin this little history of the Fort-Fannin 
families I will commence with Arthur Fort, the father 
of my husband. Of course I do not know so much of 
his family as I do of my own. 

Arthur Fort came of English parentage. I only 
know that three brothers, Moses, Arthur and Elias, 
first settled in North Carolina and afterward scattered 
to different parts of the country. Dr. Fort's family 
being descended from one of them. Arthur Fort, 
father of my husband, was born January 15th, 1750. 
He was living in Burke County, Georgia, when the 
Revolutionary war broke out. Before the war he had 
married a widow, Mrs. Whitehead, formerly Miss 
Susannah Tomlinson. She came of a Pennsylvania 
Quaker family, was a very small woman, with dark 
hair and eyes, she was a gentle, loving mother, her 
children ever retained a tender memory of her. She 
died December 13th, 1820. She had one son by her 
first marriage and eight sons and daughters by her 
second. Her oldest child Sarah, was born the 14th of 
August, 1779 ; Moses, March 17th, 1782 ; Arthur, April 
3rd, 1785; Tomlinson, July 14th, 1787; Elizabeth, 
December 26th, 1789; Susannah, March 11th, 1792; 


Zachariah Cox, February 12th, 1795; Owen Oharlton, 
December 1st, 1798. 

Arthur Fort, the father of this family, was a man 
of strong original mind. His early opportunities were 
poor, but he was possessed of uncommon intellect and 
passion for reading and was a leading spirit in the 
stirring times in which he lived. He was a great 
patriot, served in Georgia with distinction during the 
Revolution. When Sir James Wright evacuated 
Savannah, Georgia, he was put in charge of the Gov- 
ernment house. This I heard in a lecture delivered 
by Mr. Stevens, author of Stevens' History of Georgia, 
in Milledgeville. Before Georgia was organized as a 
State, Arthur Fort was one of the men appointed as 
one of the first Executive Council. The members of 
this Council were the authors of the Code of Laws for 
the State, this fact can be verified in the archives of 
the State. He fought against the Indians with great 
bravery during the Revolution. On one occasion he 
was in a fort on the Ogeechee river, when it was sur- 
rounded by savages. The garrison was out of pro- 
visions and some one had to go for help. Arthur Fort 
volunteered to go, he stripped off his clothes except 
pants and shirt, tied a handkerchief around his head, 
mounted the fleetest horse in the fort. The gate was 
cautiously opened and he dashed out, through the 
watching Indians. They were so astounded at his 
daring that they set up a shout, a few hurried shots 
were fired at him, but he made good his escape and 
soon brought relief to the beseiged fort. During the 
war he made a few stolen visits home and was once 
betrayed by a Tory neighbor, which was the cause of 
quite a dramatic scene. This neighbor collected a 
band of Tories and came in to take Arthur Fort a 
prisoner and kill him. His wife threw herself in front 
of her husband and one of the soldiers said, "I'll not 
kill him, little women, for your sake." The Tories 


contented themselves with depridations of all kinds, 
even cutting the cloth from the loom, a great calamity 
in those times, Arthur Fort ever after that vowed to 
kill that neighbor on sight, the war being over, he took 
his gun and went out to hunt him. The man seeing 
Arthur Fort coming fell down at his feet, threw up his 
hands and begged for mercy. Arthur could not kill 
such a wretch, but went up and kicked him, as if he 
had been a dog, and left him, his vengeance having 
been appeased. 

After the country became more quiet, he settled 
on the shores of the Ogeechee river in Warren County, 
Georgia, where he lived for many years, representing 
his county in the Legislature and assisting in forming 
many of the most important laws of Georgia. Most 
of his children were born at this home. They after- 
wards moved to Twiggs County, Georgia, where he 
died on November 16th, 1833. He had two brothers 
who were soldiers in the Revolution. One of them 
died of smallpox in Charleston, S. C. during the war. 
He had also a maiden sister, "old aunt Rhoda," who 
lived in a little house in his yard. She was quite a 
shrew, they said, and odd in her dress, tormenting her 
young nieces by coming before their beaux in sack 
and petticoat. Her brother always took care of her 
and she died a few years before he did. 

His children married as follows : Sarah, to Apple- 
ton Rossetter ; Moses, to Eudocia Walton Moore; 
Arthur, to Mary Newsom; Tomlinsou, to Martha Low 
Fannin ; Elizabeth, to Lovett B. Smith ; Susannah, 
first to Robert Jemmison, and second to Samuel 
Hunter; Zachariah Cox, to Amanda Beckham ; Owen 
Charleton, died unmarried. He was a young physi- 
cian of promise, he died and is buried in Twiggs 
County, Georgia, at thirty years of age. 

These were all honest and upright men and women, 
unusually intelligent and devoted to information of 


all kinds. They were tall in statue, the men generally 
being over six feet, the women also were tall and 
spare, rather plain in appearance and brusque in 
manner, but they were very sincere. They were gen- 
erally of a blonde type with light hair and blue 
eyes. Moses, a lawyer by profession, was perhaps the 
most showy of the brothors having extraordinary con- 
versational abilities and shining talents, lie was 
made Judge of the Superior Court, but soon retired 
from active business. Eudocia, his wife, deserves 
special mention, she outlived her husband many years. 
She educated and maintained her family and was a 
jewel among women. I have rarely met her equal for 
fine sense, extraordinary industry and sterling worth, 
Arthur Fort, my husband's father, lived to be very 
old, he left a stainless name. He was a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church for fifty years, lie 
rode on horseback fifty miles to hear the first Meth- 
odist preacher who visited this section, it was old 
Bishop Asbury. He took great interest in the politics 
of the country, had the papers read to him daily dur- 
ing his many years of blindness. He died of a sudden 
attack of pneumonia, and my husband, who was sent 
for to see him, arrived only a few hours before his 
death. It was during a very exciting election, and 
the old man roused up to ask news of it. He was told 
that his candidate. Governor Lumpkin, the democrat, 
was elected Governor of the State. The dying man 
bowed his head signifying satisfaction, and in a few 
moments breathed his last. He died November 16th, 


My husband, Dr. Tomlinson Fort, graduated at the 
Philadelphia Medical College in Pennsylvania and 
became the most distinguished physician in the State 
also a leading figure in politics. He represented his 


county twelve years? in the legislature and his district 
in congress two years. The expenses pertaining to 
his large family compelled him to retire from politics 
and devote himself to his profession. He served as a 
captain in the war of 1812, and was severely wounded 
in a battle with the Indians in Florida. He organized 
his company, "The Baldwin Volunteers," in Milledge- 
ville, and my uncle Abram Fannin was his first 
lieutenant. The battle in which Dr. Fort was wounded 
took place at night, Colonel Williams commanding. 
The United States soldiers were ambuscaded by the 
Indians and nearly every man wounded. Colonel 
Williams was shot seven times, once while in Dr. 
Fort's arms. There was a rude fort called a block- 
house, built of logs, twelve miles from the fort, situ- 
ated in a dense swamp. The troops were attacked 
from both sides of the road and they could only 
guess the whereabouts of the enemy from the flashes of 
their guns. Defense was hopeless. Dr. Fort went to 
each man, touched him on the shoulder and whispered, 
"Ketreat to the Blockhouse." He was suddenly shot 
in the knee, while still supporting Colonel Williams 
in his arms. He laid Colonel Williams down in the 
bushes, whispering to him, "lie quiet or the Indians 
may find you and scalp you." However they did not 
find Colonel Williams, he was brought into the block- 
house in the morning and there died. Dr. Fort 
walked twelve miles that unfortunate night, he was 
assisted by two of his men who would not desert him* 
Resting frequently, guiding his way by the stars, he 
succeeded in reaching the block house at day-break. 
Afterwards he was ill for weeks. As soon as he was 
able to travel he went to Darien, and from thence to 
his father's in Twiggs County, Georgia. He was on 
crutches for eighteen months. 

Uncle Abram Fannin, Dr. Fort's lieutenant, served 
through the war, rising to the position of Paymaster 


General with rank of Major. When I was a child I 
well remember seeing him when he stopped at my 
father's home in Putnam County, Georgia. He was 
on his way from Washington City to Old Fort Haw- 
kins, now a part of the city of Macon, Georgia. He 
had with him great boxes filled with money with 
which to pay off the soldiers. 

It will not do to close this little sketch of my hus- 
band without referring to his great domestic virtues. 
Absorbed, as was his time, by his extensive practice 
and numerous outside interests, he was never neg- 
lectful of wife and children. He was a great student 
and able writer. He wrote a valuable work on med- 
icine, published in 1849, called "Fort's Medical Prac- 
tice." This added greatly to his reputation and has 
been extensively used in the South and West. The 
wound he received in the Indian war was at last the 
cause of his death. He was attacked with a strange 
disease pronounced by physicians "lead poison,", 
caused by the presence of the ball in his knee. He 
had the ball removed, but with no beneficial result. 
The physicians of Milledgeville, fearing for his life, 
refused to perform the operation. But Dr. Fort in- 
sisted that it should come out, and made his son 
George (then a young physician) undertake the op- 
eration. Dr. Eve, a noted surgeon of Augusta, was 
sent for and assisted. Dr. Fort himself held his knee 
and directed the knife. As may be seen he had 
great nerve. The operation, as far as removing the 
ball was concerned, was successful but did no good, 
and for ten years he suffered paroxysms of great 
agony. He died in Milledgeville, Georgia, on the 
11th of May, 1859, in the seventy-third year of his 
age. The immediate cause of his death was erysipelas 
of the head. He is buried in Milledgeville, where he 
had lived about fifty years. He died honored and la- 
mented after an upright and useful life. The funeral 


was large, the stores were closed, the military and all 
public bodies attended. I can honestly say that I 
think my husband was a truly great man. He cer- 
tainly stood in the foremost rank of the men of his 
time. Of him it can be said as of his father, no stain 
rests upon his name. . 

I think I have about finished what I know of the 
older branches of the Forts, and just here, before I 
begin with my own family, I must say that on read- 
ing over this I fear one might think me a little in- 
clined to boasting, but I speak in no such spirit. I 
certainly do know that my husband's people and my 
own have stood well in the world, and I trust I am an 
humble as well as a proud woman. I will now con- 
tinue with some minuteness, as I know the indulgent 
ears that are to listen to this family recital. 


I know less of my mother's family than of my 
father's, so will give but a few bare facts. Grand- 
father Daniel Low, my mother's father, was of Eng- 
lish parentage and a Virginian by birth. At the 
breaking out of the Revolutionary war he was living 
in Rockingham County, Virginia. His father and 
mother dying when he was young, he had been reared 
by his grand parents. He had an elder brother and 
one sister ; being a second son he inherited nothing 
from his parents. He served through the war, was a 
captain in General Washington's army, was with 
Washington in all of his campaigns. Was at Trenton, 
Brandywine and Yorktown, Daniel Low married 
Miss Patty Scott, of Virginia, and left his wife and 
only child at his grand parents, only returning once 
to see them during the seven years' war. He was tall 
and commanding, was a gentleman and a noble man. 
When a child I remember him, as a grand old man, 
telling over his battles. 


After the war my Grandfather Low moved to 
Georgia with the vast tide of emigrants cominf? South 
from Virginia. He brought with him his grand 
parents, very aged people (I remember seeing him.) 
They died soon after they came, and arc buried at the 
old family burying ground in Hancock County, 
Georgia, where rests the remains of my parents and 
many relatives. My grandfather became a very rich 
man, the richest, indeed, in the "up country" of 
Georgia. A year or two before the war of 1 81*2 the 
cotton gin was invented and the culture of cotton was 
thereby largely increased. When the war was over 
grandfather had four hundred bales of cotton packed 
under his gin house. There had been no demand for 
cotton during the war. His elder and only brother 
also moved to Georgia, lived near Augusta, kept fine 
horses and indulged largely in all of the fashionable 
sports of the day, sports which were particii)at(Ml in 
by the gentry, such as horse-racing, cock-fighting and 
drinking. Every man of wealth then kept brandy on 
his sideboard. 

Grandfather Low left four sons, John, rjcorge, 
William and Seymour, and one daughter, Betsey, my 
mother. My mother was finely educated in Virginia, 
and at Salem, North Carolina. I have seen the old 
house in Virginia where she was sent to dancing 
school. She was quite a belle, a light-haired, blue- 
eyed blonde, not very pretty but gentle and lovely in 
disposition. Sister Ann (Mrs. Porter,) resembled her 
more than any of my sisters. Uncle Seymour Low 
(Grandfather's favorite son) died when a young man, 
unmarried. Uncle John Low moved to Alabama. 
After my father's death. Uncle George Low, who was 
an avaricious man, persuaded Grandfather Low (now 
in his dotage) to move to Tennessee. There he in- 
duced him to make a will cutting off my mother's 
children from any share in his property. My mother 


was dead at this time and it was easy to defraud the 
orphans. Naturally, since that time, we have neither 
had nor desired intercourse with the Lows. Grand- 
father Low died, and was soon followed by Grand- 
mother Low. They died and are buried in Tennessee. 


I cannot speak with certainty of the elder Fannins. 
My grandfather on my father's side, was named James 
Fannin. He was born November 22nd, 1739, he was 
of Irish descent, was born, I think, in Ireland. He 
came (if I remember rightly) to America with his 
parents when a child. Of this I am not certain. His 
parents probably settled in South or North Carolina, 
and he doubtless moved, when a young man, to 
Georgia, where he married Elizabeth Saffold in AVash- 
ington County, Georgia, on the 13th of October, 1767. 
Elizabeth Saffold was born November 12th, 1743, in 
N'irginia, I think. Her family had moved to Georgia. 
She was of good birth, highly educated, had even been 
taught French, which was unusual in those days. She 
had those advantages, as her father was a wealthy 
man and her brothers became men of prominence 
from their superior character and intelligence. 

When the American colonies revolted against 
Great Britain, grandfather James Fannin, became a 
rebel, taking sides with the Colonies. His elder 
brother, Edmund, joined the English and became an 
ofTicer in their army. The elder brother in most fam- 
ilies, usually went to the English, because they gen- 
erally inherited the property and titles, if there was a 
title. After the Revoluntionary war Edmund was 
appointed Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. I 
have never kept up with him, and cannot speak with 
certainty. History recalls that he became a very 
prominent man and died in England. 

When I was a girl in Philadelphia, where I was 


being educated at school, I there met the two 
daughters of Uncle Edmund P'annin on their way to 
Richmond to visit their sister, who had married a Mr. 
Wickhara, a celebrated lawyer of Jvirhmond. In 
appearance they were real Fannins. They had nu't 
the Misses Lyman (who were my teachers,) in Lon- 
don, they were calling on them and hearing my name 
mentioned, they asked to see me. Before the Revo- 
lutionary war our name was spelled like theirs with a 
"g" Fanning. Our grandfather and his family con- 
sidered that Edmund, in joining the British, had dis- 
graced the family, they determined to drop the "g" 
from our name, it was ever afterwards spelled without 
it. Grandfather Fannin settled in Greene County, 
Georgia, where he became the father of ten childn^n, 
namely, Ann, married to JMr. Mapp, 8arah to Mr. 
Allison, (nephew of Wade Hampton, grandfather of 
the present Senator Hampton, of South Carolina), 
William to Katie Martin, Joseph Decker (my father) 
to Betsy Low, Isham to Margaret Porter, John H. to 
Mary Flewellyn Wright (a widow), James W. to Ann 
Fletcher, Jeptha to Katie Porter, Elizabeth to Ste- 
phen Bishop, and Abram Baldwin to Jane William- 
son. All married, lived and died in Georgia. 

Grandfather Fannin was a man of means, he gave 
his children every advantage that the country af- 
forded, they were well educated. The daughters 
were noble women and famous for their beauty, 
while the sons were honorable, chivalrous, full of 
humor and strikingly handsome. They were of a 
pure blonde type. My uncles stood high in the com- 
munities in which they lived, several of them repeat- 
edly representing their counties in the legislature. 
The times were wild, the country new and rough, 
men engaged in personal encounters and drank a 
good deal. The first time my husband (Dr. Fort), 
ever saw my father was in Milledgeville, and on an 


occasion that illustrates the customs of that period. 
A drunken rowdy was in the hotel (the old McComb's 
hotel, still standing), swearing and breaking up ev- 
erything around him, the people were afraid to go 
near him. My father was in bed, but hearing the up- 
roar he arose, went into the room and kicked the 
drunken fellow into the street. Duels were univer- 
sally tolerated. Two of my uncles considered their 
honor wounded by being taunted with the "Tory 
blood'' of their uncle Edmund, and had recourse to 
this mode of settling their difficulties. Uncle Abram 
received a bull in the leg. Uncle John wounded his 
antagonist badly, and walking up to him said, "Crow- 
der, if I have killed you forgive me." Crowder re- 
torted, "1 won't," whereupon Uncle .John finished the 
absurd conversation by, "Well, if you won't then I 
don't care." As may be seen. Uncle .John was quite a 
character. While on the subject of these personal 
encounters I might as well mention another of which 
my father was the hero. One morning I remember 
seeing my father spring into the house explaining to 
mother, "Well Betsy, I have whipped the bully of the 
county." He was himself slightly bitten on the 
tiiumb, however. Violent inllammation followed, 
threatening to cost him his life. The physicians de- 
clared he must lose his arm, and prepared to take it 
otT. He threw them off, declaring, "I will die with 
both arms on my body." He recovered. 

Colonel Abercrombie, his antagonist, was also 
unfortunate, for father bit off a piece of his chin. In 
a former encounter Colonel Abercrombie had lost a 
part of his nose and ever after that wore a black silk 
nose, he seemed to have earned his title, "bully of the 
county." A few years after this Colonel Aber- 
crombie's only daughter ran away with a vagabond, 
coming to my father (then a Justice of the Peace,) to 
be married. Father led her to mother, turning to the 


man Harris, remarking "I shall not marry you until I 
hear from her father." He then sent a note to Col- 
onel Abercrombie, giving him the facts, and soon 
received this answer. "As she has run away the 
sooner she is married the better I will be pleased." 
This was the first marriage I ever witnessed. Shortly 
after this, father met Colonel Abercrombie^ who 
offered his hand, they were friends after that. Years 
afterwards my father met Mrs. Harris living near 
Augusta, Georgia, in a destitute condition and on his 
informing Colonel Abercrombie, he took her home. 
Her husband died, and she afterwards married the 
distinguished Hiram Warner of the Supreme Court of 
this State. But I am digressing and will go back to 
the marriage of my father and mother. 


My father and mother were married at mother's 
home in Hancock County, Georgia, March 15th, 1802. 
I have often heard mother describe their weddins: 
costumes. Father wore white cassimere pants, fast- 
ened at the knees with large buttons of brilliants, 
white silk stockings and black pump shoes. He wore 
a white vest, and a blue cloth dress coat with brass 
buttons. He had beautiful, abundant light brown hair, 
which was long and plaited down his back, tied with 
a white ribbon. His hair was not cut off until many 
years after his marriage. He wore the fashionable 
long comb to hold back his hair, and was said to be 
the handsomest man in the county. He was Sheriff 
of this county at the time he married, but owned 
nothing but his fine horse, saddle and bridle, his 
father afterwards assisted him. Mother's wedding 
dress was a very fine white sprigged India muslin. 
And this flourishing young couple began life in a log 
house with one room, such are the inconsistences of 
life in a new country. Very soon their affairs im- 


proved for their parents gave them some negroes, 
which were then considered most valuable. I have 
often heard father laugh and tell how he first saw 
mother as a girl of fourteen. Her parents when mov- 
ing to Georgia camped by Grandfather Fannin's home, 
with all their slaves and horses. Seeing an only- 
daughter in the family and such a fortune, his brothers 
teased and told him there was a chance for a wife for 
him. My parents settled in Putnam County about 
fifteen miles from the town of Eatonton, Georgia, 
beginning life in humble style. Mother's father had 
resented her marrying a poor man and gave her very 
little. He did not even give her a negro until he saw 
that in attempting to do some washing her hands had 
bled. He could not stand that and sent her a slave at 
once. My parents were among the first settlers in Put- 
nam County after the Indians left. An enterprising 
man like father was not long content with a log house, 
but soon had built one of the first frame houses in the 
county, perhaps the first. Every plank was sawed by 
hand as there were no mills. All of their children 
were born here, namely : Martha Low, born January 
8th, 1804, married to Tomlinson Fort of Milledgeville, 
Georgia, October 28th, 1824; Ann Mapp, born October 
31st, 1806, married John W. Porter of Madison, 
Georgia ; James A., born February 5th, 1810, died 1818. 
Betsey Minerva, born May 5th, 1812, married Seaborn 
Johnson, of Madison, Georgia ; Sallie Allison, born 
August 19th, 1815, married Stewart Floyd, of Madison, 
Georgia ; Joseph Decker, born May 22nd, 1818, still 
living and unmarried. The families of my sisters are 
dear to me, they are good and true men and women. 
My father held important trusts during his life, 
was sheriff, justice of the peace, and member of the 
legislature. He was in the war of 1812, also my uncle 
John, Abram and Jeptha were all at Fort Hawkins 
near Macon, and served in the army during the war of 


1812. Father was captain of a Light Morse Company 
and rode a bay horse named Bolus. The first mother 
knew of his going was, having him come in and throw 
into her lap his jacket with brass buttons and his fur 
cap. His company rendezvoused at Fort Hawkins 
now -in ruins on the Ocmulgee river, near Macon. 
From this point they were sent out against the 
Indians. Father returned in safety from the war. In 
times of peace he was an energetic and enterprising 
citizen. He imported the first Bermuda grass into 
that section of Georgia. He brought it from Augusta, 
Georgia, where he went to sell his cotton, he had the 
grass carefully packed in his saddle-bags. On reach- 
ing home it was planted by the front porch where it 
was watered. Bermuda grass so useful for grazing 
purposes, now covers the hills of Georgia. He also 
brought the first mule into the country, he was a 
prosperous planter, one of those men who was always 
up with the times. At that time Indigo was largely 
cultivated and used for dyeing the cloth, this was 
made at home. My father's clothes were quite noted 
as fine specimens of weaving. But you need not fancy 
that we had no silks. I can remember some that my 
mother had that could almost stand alone, especially 
one like a peacock's changeable breast that struck my 
young fancy. Our underclothing was entirely of 
linen, cotton cloth, except coarse "homespun," as it 
was called, being unknown. The first piece of calico 
I ever saw was a dress father brought me from 
Eatonton. It cost one dollar per yard and was 
extremely coarse, it had a dark blue ground with little 
white spades all over it. This was just before gins 
were used. Cotton was cultivated only in small 
patches, it was not yet "King," the seed had to be 
picked out by hand. This was the winter evening 
employment of the women and children and was a 
tedious process. Each person had their pile of cotton 

Taken 1S28. 



yAstor, Lenox and Tiiden / 
Four dations, 


placed near the fire, in order that the heat might 
make the seed separate easily from the lint. 

Father was a successful man, and though he died 
quite young, left for that age a handsome property. 
The manner of his death was singular. He was 
siezed at ten o'clock in the morning with a violent 
pain in his knee, the agony increasing until you 
could hear him scream for a long distance. He could 
get no relief, and died with great suffering the next 
day after he was attacked. He became cold hours 
before his death. The physicians called the disease 
cold plague. The country was new and very sickly- 
This disease so prevalent then seems now to be un- 
known. In the fall of the year the sickness was ter- 
rible, almost everybody on the plantations would have 
chills, and many died of the terrible bilious fevers- 
The negroes would come up regularly for their dose 
of Feruvian bark (a dreadful substitute for quinine), 
which had not then been introduced. During the 
sickly season lights were scarcely out of the houses at 
night, and the doctors were fairly exhausted with 
their labors. The practice of medicine was crude, 
calomel was given in enormous doses and often 
caused frightful salivation. At this time patients 
with fever were kept in a close room and not allowed 
to touch water. I remember an attack of fever I had 
and how I felt that I would die of thirst. One night 
it seemed I could bear it no longer, seeing the nurse 
leave the room for a little while I crawled from the 
bed to a bucket of water and drank just as much as I 
wanted, no body knew it and it did me no harm. 

Eight days after father's death mother lost a 
promising son, James, eight years old, from a singular 
accident. A piece of hickory-nut shell became 
lodged in his windpipe, this produced a case of rapid 
consumption and caused his death. Mother had been 
passionately devoted to father and this double blow 


almost unsettled her reason. Six months after father's 
death brother Joe was born. 

It is confusing to write a story of this kind, so 
many things come crowding on one's memory. Long 
as it has been, the incidents of childhood rise up so 
clearly, little traits of character in the dear ones gone. 
Like a photograph I see my odd Uncle .John and hear 
the quaint humor of his sayings. Away back almost 
into infancy I recall him as he rode up to our house 
one day. Mother was out on a visit and the three 
little girls, Martha (myself), Ann, and Minerva were 
left with their nurses. Uncle John came in gayer 
than usual, from an extra glass, and proposed to bore 
our ears for us, promising wonderful ear-rings and 
presents. Of course we agreed and thought we had a 
grand surprise on hand. Running to meet father and 
mother to show them our ears and tell them what 
ornaments we were to have. "Yes," said father "poor 
little things, they must now be fixed like the Indian 
squaws. I shall have holes bored all around the ears 
and take them out for a show," which set us crying in 
concert, while he said to mother if he had been there 
he would have thrashed the rascal. I also recall how 
Uncle John would call in a half dozen little darkeys 
that were always around, and make them wash his 
feet. He had very long and certainly very singular 
toes, which could hold objects as if they had been 
fingers. Often have I heard a luckless darkey squeal 
from a pinch with those same queer toes. A strain of 
humor ran through the whole Fannin family. Father 
showed it also, and often my quiet, dignified mother, 
had her ideas shocked by her gay husband's pranks. 
He would call in an old darkey, Mose by name, and 
say "now" Mose, give us Tarleton's defeat" and Mose 
•would sing how "Brave General Morgan did Tarleton 
defeat." Then father would make him dance and 
mother would say "How can you Mr. Fannin." Father 



loved music, had a fine voice and often sang himself. 
Among his favorite songs were, "Wife, Children and 
Friends" and "Erin go bragh." He was fond of making 
me sing, as a tiny child, he loved the gay side of life 
and early had me taught to dance as well as sing. It 
would seem a strange life now, this life of a child in a 
new country. My earliest recollection, I was but a 
baby, is being taken by my old nurse on the front 
porch of our house and told to sit still, while she 
brought from a tree near, a big locust for me. Then I 
saw her go towards the tree and run away with a 
shriek, as the "big locust'' turned out to be a large 
rattlesnake. I shall never forget my fright at that 
scene. Later on were the sports of the country child, 
the rabbit hunts at night were great frolics. To see 
the negroes with torches carrying bags to catch the 
game, these bags were put over holes in the fence 
where the rabbits got in the garden and there was a 
scene of such screaming and racing, the frightened 
little rabbits sought to go out by their usual ways and 
were caught in the bags and killed. I remember one 
night we killed thirteen and great was the excite- 
ment, for Guinea, the little pet dog, ran into one of 
the traps and was knocked in the head, great sensa- 
tion and many tears. But Guinea revived, and I have 
remembered this incident all these years, and have 
forgotten so many important matters. But it would 
be tedious to dwell on these little things that bring 
smiles and almost tears. I grew up in the country 
with the best advantages that we could get, until I was 
a tall girl of fourteen with already a lover in that 
simple, old fashion time, and then an event of great 
importance to me took place. 


Uncle Abram Fannin came to pay us a visit and 
made a proposition to my mother, that certainly had a 


lasting effect upon my life. I was a great favorite 
with him, he was a prosperous cotton merchant of 
Savannah, Georgia, and was a generous man of for- 
tune. He was at that time on his way to the North, 
and persuaded mother to let him take me with him 
and put me at school. A trip to the Nortli was then a 
serious undertaking, far more so than a trip to Europe 
is now. I had little time and made slight prepara- 
tions for the journey. I soon went down to Milledge- 
ville with uncle, and there visited for the first time 
Miss Nancy Clarke at her father's place "Woodville," 
in Scottsboro, Georgia, she was a noted girl, daughter 
of Governor Clarke, and was engaged to be married 
to Uncle Abram. This engagement was afterwards 
broken, through a foolish quarrel, such as lovers had 
then, as well as now. She thought that he had neg- 
lected to come to see her when he shouhl have done 
so. Here began that friendship between Nancy 
Clarke and myself which has continued with us a 

We only remained a few days af'Woodville,'' then 
set out for Savannah, where uncle fitted me out for 
school, modest preparations I suppose. I only remem- 
ber a green silk bonnet drawn on willow, for it had a 
tragic end. We embarked for New York, on a sailing 
vessel, and the poor little "country cracker," was des- 
perately sick, all the way, and lay in her berth until 
the good ship reached Brooklyn. The ship was called 
the "Speed of Peace," this was before the days of 
steamboats, we made what was called a quick passage 
of seven days. But to return to the green silk bonnet, 
on getting out of my berth to go ashore, it was found 
under me mashed hopelessly flat, and I had to enter 
the city bareheaded. A ferry boat propelled by 
horses, carried us over to the great New York, and we 
were soon established in a boarding house on Broad- 
way, down near the Battery. After consulting friends, 



uncle took me over to Elizabethtown, New Jersey, to 
a large boarding school, then quite famous and kept 
by a Miss Hall. It was a new experience to me to be 
in a great four story house with an hundred girls of 
all sorts and 8i?es. It was a hard kind of experience, 
under very severe discipline and full of that rebellion 
always found under such circumstances. The school 
was generally called the "Corner Convent." The girls 
had all kinds of frolics when they could conceal them, 
and usually spent their pocket change on taffy and 
cakes. Our fare was meagre, the bed rooms never 
had a fire in them and we really suffered from cold. 
Our bathing arrangements were of the simplest, large 
tul>s of water were placed in a latticed room and 
there, midsts the free winds of heaven we managed 
as best we could. In the meantime I studied hard, I 
practiced on the harp until my fingers were blistered, 
learned music on a dumb piano (whose keys I tried to 
break) and picked up a little French. Some of my 
uncle's friends in Elizabethtown were very good to 
me, especially General and Mrs. Wingfield Scott who 
often had me to spend the day with them, and giving 
me pleasures such as school girls love. This is the 
General Scott, who afterwards became so distin- 
guished in American history. But such a school as 
this ought not and did not prosper. Miss Hall the 
principal of the school was tyrannical, she was cruelly 
unkind to a girl under her charge, who died while 
with her. Public indignation was aroused to such a 
degree about this, that the school was broken up at 
once, the pupils leaving for their homes. Uncle be- 
ing in New York at the time, came and took me to 
Philadelphia. He placed me at a very superior school 
there, in charge of the Misses Lyman. They were 
very elegant ladies, their father had been our Minister 
to England. 

Then came a year of school life that was a priv- 


ilege indeed. It was pleasant to live with ladies who 
had no punishment for the pupils beyond a polite, 
"will you walk into the other room." We were not 
prisoners, but were allowed to walk out and even pay 
visits. Several of the girls were from Savannah, 
Georgia, and were my friends. Then I paid charm- 
ing visits to some girls from Philadelphia. How 
vividly I remember Lizzie Marcon and the days I 
spent in her handsome home on Chestnut street, with 
its elegant parlors and liveried servants. It was while 
at this school that I met Uncle Edmund Fannin's 
daughters. So time passed happily, until three years 
had transformed me into a young woman and Uncle 
Abram came on North to carry me home. But have I 
mentioned that cousin James Fannin was being edu- 
cated at West Point while I was in Philadelphia, and 
occasionally came to see me. He was a son of uncle 
Isham Fannin, was sent to West Point at fifteen years 
of age. He was a gallant handsome lad, whom I loved 
dearly, we were almost like brother and sister. 

Just before cousin James graduated he unfortun- 
ately had a fight with one of the boys and ran away to 
Georgia, where he married and moved to Texas. His 
career afterwards is well known. He was a colonel 
in the Texan War of Independence. History tells of 
his bravery, he was in command of a fort at Golaid, 
Texas, he was surrounded and forced to surrender 
with his three hundred men. How basely they were 
ordered shot, by the Mexican General, Santa Anna. 
How cruelly his men and himself had suflFered from 
hunger and thirst. Colonel Fannin when shot was 
unable to stand, but sat in his chair, and told them 
not to blindfold him "but shoot to the heart." A pit- 
iful end of a brave man. He took off his watch with 
the request that if possible it should be sent to his 

But to return, my good uncle came, never can I 


forget his kindness, it extended into every detail. Of 
course a young lady needed an outfit and my indul- 
gent uncle told Miss Lyman to see to it. The result 
was a lot of pretty things for me. Would you like to 
know what a girl wore in 1821? Well, I had three 
bonnets, a white cut velvet and plumes, a blue plush, 
with plumes, and a white leghorn. Then my riding 
dress, (this is now called a travelling dress), was a 
purple lady's cloth with shoes to match. I had a 
black canton crepe dress and an elegant flowered 
black silk, trimmed up to the knees with rows of nar- 
row ribbon, quilled on in bunches. Another pretty 
silk was a striped gold and white morning dress, open 
in front to show the embroidered white petticoat be- 
neath. I had beautiful white dresses, one of mull 
trimmed with embroidery with blue ribbon under it, 
one was embroidered by hand to the knee and another 
was unlike any I see now. It was of muslin to the 
knee and from there down of the thinest mull with 
tucks of the thicker sewed on. That dress was copied 
by several. My shoes were of a cloth called prunella, 
of colors to match my dresses. This was a fine prep- 
aration for life in the country of Georgia. However, 
I soon found a use for these dresses in Richmond. I 
was to have spent the winter in Savannah and to have 
been present at uncle's marriage with Jane William- 
son, my schoolmate, but hearing of the yellow fever 
then raging there we returned home by land in a 
stage coach, three weeks travel, night and day. A 
memorable journey was this, five gentlemen were in 
the party, among them Major Anthony Porter of 
Savannah, an accomplished gentleman and a beau of 
mine. Nothing they could do was spared to make my 
trip one to be remembered, and so it is. Often now 
at night I fancy I hear the echoing horn blown by 
the drivers as we entered a town or village. I recall 
the jokes, the laughter, the poetry, quoted on these 


perfect moonlight nights, all was light hearted en- 
joyment, suited to my age and situation. 

At length we reached Richmond, Virginia, and 
rested a few days. My uncle had friends there and 
we were charmingly entertained by them. Judge Roan 
(whose first wife was a daughter of Patrick Henry) 
gave a little entertainment to his daughter. Miss 
Eliza Roan, (afterwards my friend, Mrs. Governor 
McDonald of Georgia) and myself. Among the guests 
was a brother of Mrs. General Scott, a Mr. Mayo, and 
I suppose I must have liked compliments for I do not 
forget that he asked P^liza Roan, "who is that angel?" 
1 was a pretty girl, I was told. 

Leaving Richmond, the stage travel began again 
with its romance and spice of accidents. Once the 
horses broke loose and ran off leaving us in the midst 
of a vast piney woods pond in Carolina. How to get 
me to dry land was the question, the gentlemen soon 
solved this problem by carrying me bodily. And then 
began the walk of six miles through a sandy pine, bar- 
ren road, oh, how tired I was. Uncle encouraged me on 
with "just a little farther" by constantly imagining 
he saw a house ahead. Every few yards I had to stop 
to get the sand out of my slippers, when we did reach 
a log house I dropped down upon a bed, utterly ex- 
hausted, and slept until late the next day, when 
uncle awoke me and said the coach was at the door- 


The last journey was over and with dismayed eyeS 
I saw my mother's house in the distance. Could this 
shabby, common looking place be my home, and those 
"crackerish looking" children running down the lane 
be my brothers and sisters? Just look at their clothes 
and rough shoes, but so it was, I was indeed on my 
"native heath" again. All of this was a terrible and 
depressing experience for me, a trial of which I could 

Taken about 1820. 



Astor, Lenox and Tliden 7 
^^ Fourdatjona. 
1£l4 , 


not complain and certainly could expect no sympathy. 

My dear mother was as tender to me as a 
mother could be, but Georgia, the country and sur- 
roundings were then so very rough, I thought I could 
scarcely ever be reconciled to it. I had my horse and 
rode in my gig, (mother gave me a handsome one,) 
with a servant behind me dressed in livery, blue coat 
with red collar and cuffs, a relic of the war of 1812, 
an old soldier's coat that I found at home. Then too 
I read constantly, I don't know what I should have 
done at first but for a library owned by an old Eng- 
lish neighbor, Mrs. Fielder, who kindly loaned me her 
books. The neighbors were not slow to remark that 
I could not even make a dress for a negro, and it was 
noised abroad that my teeth were full of gold, so I 
was a sort of nine days wonder. Time of course, 
brought all this right, and my life became a pleasant 

My mother gave me one thousand dollars, I bought 
a piano, (I never had a harp,) and some furniture for 
our house, was beginning to feel quite nicely fixed up, 
when my kind mother died. She left the children, 
brother Joe was just three years old, to my care, tell- 
ing me I must do the best I could for them. We were 
peculiarly desolate and at first I did not know what 
to do, but we finally moved to the home of our guard- 
ian, a Mr. Davis. I had now to think of the educa- 
tion of my young sisters. There were no schools near, 
I determined to establish one, and taking our negroes 
had a house put under my own direction. I heard of 
a good teacher who lived fifteen miles off, and drove 
over in my gig and engaged her. The neighbors 
patronized my school and it continued for a year. 
We only lived a short time with our guardian, I found 
his family coarse and uncongenial and decided to 
leave them. I induced our friend and neighbor, Mrs. 
Fielder, then a widow, to take us to board. She was 


a woman of bright intelligence with an interesting 
family of daughters, who became my lifetime friends. 
The two years spent with her are among my brightest 

I had a long spell of fever, my health suffered so, 
that by good cousin Adam Saffold's advice I went to 
Madison to board and put sister Ann to school there. 


I passed my youth in Madison and was married 
there. Sister Ann was the first of the sisters to marry, 
she married at seventeen years of age. Six months 
later I was married at sister Ann's home. Several 
years afterwards sisters Minerva and Sarah were mar- 
ried with a double wedding, also in Sister Ann's house 
at Madison, Georgia. I received many offers of mar- 
riage from the best men in the country, had a devoted 
admirer in Mirabeau Lamar, (he was afterward Presi- 
dent of Texas), a most romantic one in Mr. Wm. H. 
Sparks, (still living,) and many others, were it worth 
while to mention them. Speaking of Mr. Sparks re- 
minds me of the great camp-meetings that were held 
by the churches in that day, they took the places of 
our modern summer resorts. There congregated the 
people both for religious meetings and social amuse- 
ments, and there met the belles and beaux. It is diffi- 
cult in this day of calm religious discussion, to under- 
stand the wild enthusiasm of those "heroic days" of 
the church. One meeting I remember especially 
where old Bishop Capers preached his famous sermon 
on "Thou art the man." The people became fairly 
crazed with excitement, they fell prostrate on the 
ground and indeed it was a scene of almost frightful 
enthusiasm. It was there, too, that I received news of 
the sudden death of Dr. Erwin, of Madison, a brilliant 
young man. I was hesitating in my mind as to 
whether or not I should marry him. In order to dir 



cover my feelings, Wm. Sparks came up to me and 
without preface said "Dr. Erwin is dead." I was so 
shocked I immediately left the camp meeting. 

But at last I met my future husband. I was first 
introduced to him at Milledgeville, one evening while 
playing a game of cards called vingt-un, with Gov- 
ernor D. B. Mitchell's daughter and some other girls. 
He at once began to pay me attention and the girls 
laughingly told me that I had caught the old "quaker," 
his demeanor was very grave. The courtship ran 
smoothly enough, and we were married when he was 
thirty seven and I was twenty. 

We had a very quiet wedding at sister Ann's. My 
dress was a white embroidered muslin, made short 
and trimmed around the neck and sleeves with wide 
real thread lace. I wore white kid gloves, with one 
button, a white silk sash with flowers stamped on it. 
My slippers were of white ribbed silk with no heels, 
tied around the ankles with wide white ribbon, and 
stockings of white silk, my hair was curled and 
dressed in fresh natural flowers. My underclothing 
was of fine linen and trimmed with thread cambric 
rufiles and real lace edgings, very neat, not the mass 
of lace and embroidery now worn. My gloves had 
been sent me by a gentleman friend, as I put them 
on every finger burst out and I had to borrow Sophia 
Rossetter's in which to be married. She was Dr. 
Fort's niece who had come to the wedding. Dr. Fort 
wore a blue, swallow-tail coat with brass buttons, a 
white vest, blue pants, low quartered shoes, and silk 
stockings. The tailor (the father of General George 
H. Doles, of Confederate fame), had to sit up all 
night to make these clothes, for Dr. Fort forgot to 
order them in time. Clothes never occupied much 
of his thoughts. 



We moved at once toMilledgeville and boarded for 
six months, then went to house-keeping in the house 
where we lived for forty long years. Two years after 
our marriage Dr. Fort was sent to congress and I went 
with him, taking our only child, Julia, and going on 
in our own carriage. Those two years were bright ones 
and are vividly remembered. I met many cultivated 
and distinguished people, boarded with the Bigelows 
of Boston and Mr. and Mrs. Edward Everett. 

Mr. Everett was a very intelligent and charming 
man, and she a nice, though unremarkable woman. I 
met of course, the first people of the land, dining more 
than once at the President's and saw a good deal of 
society. I met Henry Clay, with his light blue eyes 
and eloquent tongue, and Mrs. Clay, a good but j^lain 
woman, whom he had married while in obscurity and 
then had outgrown. Also Daniel Webster, who with 
his great head and solemn ways was not a favorite 
with women. He had a terrible love scrape with an 
obscure girl there, and was only kept from marrying 
her by his friends. But the greatest of all to me, was 
my own and my husband's friend, John C. Calhoun of 
South Carolina. Dr. Fort always said that I admired 
him because he flattered me so much. I don't know 
about that, he certainly showed me many pleasant 
attentions, often taking me in to dinner, and convers- 
ing with me in that confidential strain, always flatter- 
ing, from one whose confidence is valuable. Such a 
brilliant eye and fascinating manner I have never 
seen equaled. His wife I also knew quite well, we 
boarded in the same house with Mr. and Mrs. Calhoun. 
Dr. Fort and Mr. Calhoun became devoted friends. 

The next winter we kept house on "F" street, and 
there George, my eldest son, was born, and named 
George Washington. I saw the inauguration of Gen- 
eral Jackson, from a convenient place arranged for 



the wifes of the members of Congress. His progress 
up the avenue was simple and dignified. After that 
we had the long journey home before us, Dr. Fort, 
myself and two children with Eliza, our colored nurse, 
made up the party. Noisy company sometimes, for it 
seemed to me that George cried hundreds of miles of 
the way. Once when we were crossing some river in 
a flat boat, I became almost desperate and threw the 
screaming child on the opposite seat of the carriage, 
nearly crying myself. Dr. Fort walked outside and 
afterwards teased me, declaring he kept a watch on 
me, expecting to see me throw George in the river. 
The trip was full of small adventures, there were 
many swollen rivers, that we forded at great risk. 
The trip was rendered much more pleasant by the 
company of Governor and Mrs. Wilson Lumpkin, who 
returned in their carriage to Georgia when we did. 
Dr. Fort's daring, in the matter of fording streams, 
filled Mrs. Lumpkin with horror, she would scold him 
roundly, but follow if the ford proved good. Their 
carriage would sometimes be behind ours and Mrs. 
Lumpkin often handed me small articles I had left at 
the last stopping place, saying she traced me by my 
possessions. My family accuse my daughter Sallie of 
being like me in that respect. Near Salem, North Caro- 
lina, Julia was taken suddenly ill, we were forced to 
stop there three weeks. Never shall I forget the 
order and neatness of everything there, and the kind- 
ness of those gentle people, the Moravians. We 
visited their school, which was a famous one of many 
years standing, my mother was educated there. On 
Julia's recovery we started home and reached there 
after a trying trip that had lasted six weeks. To give 
an idea of my exhaustion, when we reached home I 
went out in the garden, stooped to pick a strawberry 
and fainted. 

Dr. Fort felt now compelled to give up politics. He 


was a devoted democrat, but he always said that the 
Union was stronger than slavery. He could not afford 
to give up his valuable practice and with a growing 
family he determined to retire to private life. Mill- 
edgeville was the capital and the society was good. 
The prominent men of the State often congregated 
there and I knew them all. Dr. Fort's position made 
us entertain a good deal and I was alwa3\s fond of go- 
ing out and keeping up with the times. His practice 
was very extensive, he had the rare gift of inspiring 
great confidence and attaching men to him, so that his 
services were in demand all over the State. One in- 
stance of his professional life is perhaps of interest. I 
came in from a drive one afternoon and found sitting 
on our steps a young man, John Clarke, a son of Gov- 
ernor Clarke. He came forward to assist me from the 
carriage and I noticed that his hand was burning hot. 
He said he was sick and had come to see the Doctor 
to find out what was the matter with him. It proved 
to be a very serious thing, as Dr. Fort soon pronounced 
it to be, a case of virulent smallpox. This was the 
first case ever known in the up-country of Georgia, it 
seems absurd now, to recall the panic that it created. 
The people were frantic with fear, a committee of 
gentlemen met and declared that Dr. Fort should not 
attend the case, fearing that he would spread the 
disease. Dr. Fort, in reply, simply put a gun behind 
his front door and dared any man to molest him in 
the discharge of his duty. The house in which the 
young man lay sick, was nailed up and Dr. Fort had 
to get into his room by means of a ladder. He would 
put the medicine and water in a chair by the bed of 
the sufferer and then had to leave him alone, for he 
could get no one to nurse him. One m.orning, on pay- 
ing his usual visit he found that young Clarke had 
died in the night. Dr. Fort with difficulty found 
some one who would bury him and it was done at 



night, only Dr. Fort and the grave digger attending. 
After danger was over a vote of thanks was tendered 
Dr. Fort by the same citizens, who before were almost 
ready to mob him. It was quite amusing for some 
time to see my neighbors, with camphor held to their 
noses, call out from a distance and ask how we all 
were. Dr. Fort knew how to protect us and we 
escaped safely. John Clarke's family were at the 
North during his sickness and death. When they 
returned home they made Dr. Fort a handsome pre- 
sent of a solid silver tea service and a dozen spoons 
and forks. The forks we did not use for many years, 
they were unknown in our section and we did not 
care to incur the odium of "putting on airs." This 
silver, which we have always termed the Clarke sil- 
ver, we highly prize and have used it now for many 


I won't recall the trials and troubles of my life, 
you all know them. You know of the debts that 
weighed on my spirits, while my husband made so 
much money that we lived bountifully. Like Martha 
of old, I have been too anxious about many things, 
and I was wrong, for we had enough and to spare. 

It would seem that some are elected to have the 
charge of many people, it has been so with me. I 
had a number of our relatives to live with me at 
different times, brother Joe always, and many people 
came and went as they pleased. And then I had 
thirteen children, eight girls and five boys, four of 
my children died in infancy and nine have lived to be 
grown. These facts tell of themselves of an event- 
ful and busy life. I have lived to see buried seven 
of my children, three of them grown men and women. 
Many funerals and marriages have taken place under 
my roof. I have seen married in my house four of 


my daughters, two grand daughters, my husband's 
orphan niece, Lizzie Fort, who lived with us, and 
Lizzie Ingram, an orphan girl who lived with us four- 
teen years. 

Lizzie Ingram was devoted to the family and left 
to us a pleasant legacy of odd and brilliant sayings. 
This large and now scattered family were reared un- 
der the institution of slavery, and the family in the 
kitchen were associated with it, by tender and affec- 
tionate ties. This generation will never know the 
good humored names of "Aunt and Uncle" a term of 
respect given to the old negroes. We were no dealers 
in slaves, having a great dislike to both the buying 
and selling of the negroes. We only owned enough 
for our house-servants, the ante-bellum usage de- 
manded about a score, they often out numbered the 
white family in the house, were of all ages and sizes. 
The one my children most loved (who keeps house for 
me now in the winter) is the old nurse Nancy, a busy 
gentle little creature, but a real lady in character and 
one with most useful accomplishments. Every family 
incident has her in the back-ground, in the pantry 
making delicious dishes, in the house, making dresses, 
in the sick room, with the softest step and hand, as a 
nurse she was unrivaled. Her memory seems now to 
be a store house, full of "Miss Julia," "Miss Martha," 
"Miss Sue" and "Miss Kate's" old finery when they 
went to "the Springs" and took her. 

In 1859 we lost our gentle daughter Sue with con- 
sumption. She was one of those sweet saints who are 
the favorites while living and who leave blessed mem- 
ories. She was delicate from her birth, and "Sue's 
room" was the most sacred and yet the most cheerful 
spot in the house. Her father nursed her with the 
greatest care, and he seemed spared for that work. 
On returning from her funeral he took to his bed and 
was never out of it again and in three weeks he was 




]aid beside dear Sue in the cemetery. He had long 
been an invalid from the wound he received in the 
war of 1812, but the immediate cause of his death 
was from erysipelas. He died on May 9th, 1859, hon- 
ored, respected and lamented. The funeral took place 
from the old home and was one of the largest ever 
held in Milledgeville. These sad deaths were a great 
' shock to us. I was devoted to my husband and was 
stricken indeed by his loss. George our eldest son, 
now took his father's place as head of the family, 
a better brother never lived and I am sure no mother 
ever had such a treasure of a son. 


In 1861 began our terrible Civil war, all three of 
my sons were in it. George was surgeon in the 
Tweny-eighth Georgia, but on account of his very 
poor health was forced to resign early in the struggle. 
Tomlinson and John served through that fearful four 
years. Tom entered as a lieutenant, was afterwards 
made captain in the First Georgia Regulars. John 
entered as a private in the Baldwin Volunteers 
(named for Dr. Fort's old command), he was after- 
wards made a lieutenant in the First Georgia Regu- 
lars. Both were complimented for their bravery and 
had their share of sickness and wounds. Tom was 
four times wounded, first at Malvern Hill and very 
severely at the Second Battle of Manassas, John only 
once had the skin broken on his hand in the battle of 
Oclustee in Florida. We women at home did all 
that we could for the soldiers. I was made President 
of the "Soldiers Relief Society," in Milledgeville and 
my girls made shirts, coats, knit socks, even made 
cartridges. The events of the war are history and do 
not come within the scope of this domestic tale. 

While this dreadful strife was waging we learned 
the meaning of doing without luxuries of all kinds, 

38 :memoirs of the fort and fannin families 

and resorted to expedients in the matter of dress, 
which were not very pleasant at the time. Coffee» 
lemons, ice, white sugar, with many other articles, be- 
came things of the past with us. But all of this was 
as nothing, compared to the sorrows at home by 
death, which seemed to follow us at this time. 

On March 1, 1863, my son-in-law. Colonel Edward 
David Hugueniu, died in Macon, Georgia, after a lin- 
gering and painful illness. 

Nine months after his death, on November 30, 
1863, his wife, my brilliant charming Julia, died in 
Macon, Georgia. She was thrown from her carriage, 
her leg was fractured, and after a lingering illness of 
two months, she died. We took her to Milledgeville, 
and laid her in the cemetery there. She was so strong 
and blooming when she was thus cut down, leaving five 
children, the eldest fifteen years old, the youngest a 
baby at the breast. On her death bed she requested 
me to move to Macon to live, if agreeable to me, as 
the opportunities were better for the education of her 
children. She left me in her will her home in Macon, 
carriages, horses and house servants ; the family was 
to be supported from the plantations in Sumpter 
County, Georgia. She was then a very rich woman, 
owning over four hundred slaves, and the freeing of 
them after the war left her children poor, in common 
with most of our wealth}'- Southern families. So I had 
a young family to raise in my old age, and had to leave 
the home of my lifetime. George and the family were 
anxious for me to make the move to Macon, and I 
made the sacrifice. 

About eight months after Julia's death, her little 
Julia, (an exquisite child), died in Macon, aged about 
three years and six months. Death seemed to pursue 
us, for on May 4, 1866, I lost my son George, a sorrow 
beyond words, was this. I have lived to see all of my 


Huguenin grandchildren grown and married except 
Dora, who is now eighteen years old. 

This is all the story of my life, is it not? I have 
but to add the dates of the births, the deaths and the 
marriages. But before I do so, I want to say a word 
about my sisters. We have all spent our entire lives 
in an intercourse of great harmony and love, with a 
constant correspondence and frequent visits. Our 
families have been much together, and I can say 
without vanity, that they are lovely, refined and use- 
ful people. We have tried to verify our maxim, 
that under all circumstances we should continue to 
love each other. For fifty years our band of five 
was unbroken, and then sister Ann died. Sister Sa- 
rah followed, leaving sister Minerva, brother Joe and 
myself. Sister Minerva lives at Cave Spring, Georgia, 
brother Joe, as I have said before, has always lived 
with me. He is bright and original, and has added 
the spice of his odd genius to the pleasant and home- 
ly interests of our family life. He, like myself, is 
getting old, and is now my pleasant companion in the 
chimney corner. 


And now my life is quiet. Other people are doing 
the world's work. I live much in the past, while try- 
ing to do what good I can in the present. I have seen 
marvelous changes. I have taken a trip myself on 
the first train that ever made a run on the State or 
Western and Atlantic Railroad of Georgia, and have 
seen inventions that looked little short of miraculous. 
I have seen slavery abolished, and thank God for it. 
My husband often said he hated to die and leave his 
children in a slave State. But it is well that we can- 
not order our lives, they are planned for us better 
than we know. God is over all, peace reigns, and the 
country seems gradually drawing together in harmo- 
ny and love. 



It is with great diffidence that I attempt to add 
to these memoirs of my dear mother. I am urged by 
my family to continue this history up to the present 
time, and give family details that the modesty of my 
mother forbade. She was a very modest woman, and 
has touched lightly upon many incidents in the lives 
of my father and herself and of her large household. 
As I have been the only one of the daughters to re- 
main unmarried, it has been my privilege to be near- 
er to my mother, and more with her than the other 
members of the family. I felt that in justice to her, 
to her children, grand-children and great-grand-child- 
ren, I would endeavor to give them ray experience in 
the annals of a family whom we have all been brought 
up to love and honor. I can truthfully say that I 
think our mother was a great woman, of noble char- 
acter, and gifted in mind and person with all the at- 
tributes that adorn and elevate womanhood. As a 
girl she was beautiful, and at fifty years of age she 
was still a handsome woman, of commanding pres- 
ence and charming personality, with a gift of making 
friends, rare to find. As she grew older she wore a 
white lace kerchief and cap, similar to that we see in 
the familiar portrait of Martha Washington, and was 
often said to resemble her. 

It is difficult to separate this recital from my 
mother's. I can only do the best I can, and give my 
story in my own way. I propose to begin with my 
early recollections, given from memory and the tra- 
ditions of my childhood that were told me by father 
and mother, taking up first the history of the Fort 
family. We know but little of their early history, it 
is only as we have grown older that we have awaken- 



ed to an interest in our ancestors. We might have 
learned much from father, but we were young when 
he died, and at that time had given no thought to the 
history of our grand-father. 

Aunt Eudocia Fort was the wife of Uncle Moses 
Fort, a brother of my father's. She was noted for her 
intelligence, strict truth, and fine character. She 
lived for many years in grand-father Fort's family 
and obtained this information regarding the Forts, 
direct from him. They were given by Aunt Eudocia 
to her son Thomas Moore Fort, of Louisiana, and sent 
to us by his son, Moses Fort. These facts are also 
mentioned in some of the Archives of the States of 
Georgia and North Carolina, in White's Historical 
Collections of Georgia, and in Stevens' History of 

In 1676 an armament was sent out from England 
under Admiral Sir John Berry, to quell the rebellion 
commanded by Nathaniel Bacon, in Virginia. The 
vessel the regiment came on, was named the "Bris- 
tol." It had two colonels, Morrison and Hubert Jef- 
fries by name. In this armament my grand-father, 
Arthur Fort, says there were three brothers by the 
name of Fort, their names were Moses, Arthur and 
Elias. Arthur Fort was our ancestor. He was a 
wagon master in the army. Bacon died, the rebellion 
died with him, and the three brothers all remained 
and settled in North Carolina on the Neuse river. As 
far as we have been able to learn this was the begin- 
ning of the Fort family in America. Their descend- 
ants scattered over the country, principally locating 
in the South and Southwest. To this ancestor, Arthur 
Fort, was born, among other children, a son by the 
name of Arthur, who was the father of my grand- 
father, this son was also called Arthur, he was our 
grand-father, he was born in North Carolina, on the 
Neuse river, January 15, 1750. 


My grand-father's mother's name was Sallie Face. 
She had a brother living in Elbert County, Georgia, 
by the name of Barney Face, at the time of the death 
of my grand-father. My great-grand-father moved 
with his family, to South Carolina, and settled on the 
waters of the Great Fedee. Some of his cousins moved 
to the same neighborhood. Here my grand-father 
was raised. He moved to Georgia and married the 
widow of Charles Whitehead, whose maiden name 
was Susannah Tomlinson. Her father's family were 
Quakers, living in Fennsylvania. He left them and 
moved to North Carolina, where he settled about 
eighty miles from the place where my great-grand- 
father Fort was born. He there married a Miss Mar- 
tha Charleton. Twins were born to them, a son and 
a daughter. The son died at nineteen years of age, 
and the daughter was my grand-mother Fort, of whom 
Aunt Eudocia says, '*she was a good woman, one of the 
salt of the earth." Her father was a blacksmith by 
trade. He died and left her quite wealthy. She had 
a son by her first husband, whose name was Richard 
Whitehead. After her marriage to my grand-father 
there were born to them eight children. My mother 
has given their names, the dates of their birth, and 
whom they married. Tomlinson, our father, was their 
fourth child. 

A family of the Forts whose grand-father was 
named Elias, settled in Tennessee in 1791. They be- 
came leading citizens of the State. The late Colonel 
Edmund A. Fort was for many years a prominent 
man in West Tennessee. Branches of the Fort fam- 
ily settled in New Jersey and Illinois, many of them 
have been distinguished, and have held positions of 
honor in the country. 

Mother has mentioned grand-father's talents, his 
patriotism and public services to his State and coun- 
try. He was a man abreast of the times. He was 


one of the first persons in Georgia to make use of the 
cotton gin, this was in 1798. In connection with his 
construction and use of the gin there was a controver- 
sy in Georgia, which interested the entire State, and 
indeed, caused Governor James Jackson in November 
1800, to send a message to the Georgia Legislature 
against Eli Whitney and his partner Miller ; who 
were endeavoring to establish a monopoly in the sale 
of gins. The planters had been induced to cultivate 
a great deal of cotton, by the hope that the invention 
of the gin would enable them more cheaply to sepa- 
rate the lint from the seed. Whitney encouraged this 
planting, but was unable to supply the demand for 
gins, so the plantation blacksmiths made many gins, 
most of them of the Holmes instead of the Whitney 
pattern. Whitney brought another suit for infringe- 
ment, and attempted to collect a royalty of two hund- 
red dollars ($200.00) on each gin used. The first suit 
tried was against Arthur Fort and John Powell, in the 
Federal Court at Savannah. Arthur Fort in his an- 
swer, made a sweeping denial that Whitney had in- 
vented the gin, and insisted that the principle had 
been known in Europe. And that even if Whitney 
had invented the gin it was impracticable and not of 
the same design as the one he was using. He denied 
that he had ever seen the model of the Whitney gin, 
Governer Jackson also contended in his message 
that Whitney's invention was impracticable. It 
seems that if Whitney did discover the gin principle, 
it was a Georgian, Hoddyden Holmes, by his inven- 
tion in 1796 of the "saw gin", who had made it prac- 
ticable. The Federal Court however, in 1800, decid- 
ed in favor of Whitney, and a perpetual injunction 
was granted against Fort and Powell. Arthur Fort 
was one of the first to recognize the value of the ma- 
chine which afterwards revolutionized agriculture in 
the South. His reason for using the gin was entirely 


defensible, and evidently he was altogether sustained 
by public sentiment in his State. 

We did not know father's family as we did moth- 
er's. His sisters were much older than my mother, 
they did not live near us and naturally mother was 
more with her own relatives. Mother has spoken of 
the superior talents of the Forts, of their strong up- 
right characters, and also whom they married. I only 
recollect two sisters and one brother of my father's. 
Uncle Moses Fort, father's brother, lived about two 
miles from us, at Midway, Georgia, it is his admira- 
ble wife Eudocia, of whom mention has been made. 
We were much attached to the family of Uncle Moses, 
he was a lawyer of brilliant talents, was at one time 
a judge of the Superior Court in Georgia. Seven 
children were born to Uncle Moses and his wife Eu- 
docia, namely : Frances, died unmarried; Caroline, 
married to John Hammond ; Thomas Moore, to Mar- 
tha Connell ; Moses Tomlinson, to Martha Jane Lowe ; 
Benjamin Franklin, to Eliza Virginia Key. Arthur 
Walton and Eudocia died unmarried. 

The men of the Fort family seemed naturally to 
seek professions. Thomas and Benjamin, two of the 
sons of Uncle Moses were talented lawyers, they 
moved and settled in Louisiana. Moses, another son, 
became a leading physician in Southern Georgia. 

When I knew my father's sisters, Aunt Rossetter 
and Aunt Hunter, they were very interesting old la- 
dies. They were tall and spare, were intelligent 
women, and like most of the Forts, had tine memories. 
It was very entertaining to hear them talk of the wild 
frontier life in Georgia, when they were young. Aunt 
Rossetter was a woman of fine character, she was 
for years a widow, and lived in Macon with her 
daughters, where she died and is buried. She lived 
to be over eighty years of age. 

Aunt Sarah Fort married Appleton Rossetter 


TAKEN 1S55. 


Seven children were born to them, six daughters and 
one son, namely : Sophia, married to Charles Collins ; 
Elizabeth, to Delamar Clayton ; Susan, to Larkin 
Griffin ; Mary, to Robert Clayton ; Sarah was twice 
married, first to Hamilton Atcherson, second marriage 
to Thomas Hughes; Julia, to Peyton Smith; Arthur, 
to Mary Elizabeth Wardworth. These daughters were 
noted for their beauty. 

Arthur Rossetter lived and died in Florida, the 
majority of his descendants still live there, he was 
a man of sterling integrity. Mrs. Sarah Hughes lived 
and died in Kentucky. The other members of this 
family settled principally in Georgia. 

Aunt Hunter lived near Macon, Georgia, in an in- 
teresting and picturesque old Southern plantation 
home. Uncle Hunter was a very superior man. I 
often visited the family; Mollie, a lovely daughter 
of the house, was a favorite cousin of mine. Aunt 
Hunter lived to be over eighty years of age, she was 
twice married ; first to Henry Jemmison, second mar- 
riage to Samuel B. Hunter. There were born to Su- 
sannah Fort and Henry Jemmison, three children, 
namely : Sarah Sophia, married to George A. Winn ; 
Susan Margaret, to Dr. William J. Thomas ; Robert, to 
Sarah Stubbs. To Susannah Fort Jemmison and Sam- 
uel B. Hunter, were born five children, namely : Eu- 
docia, died unmarried; Louisa E., married to Dr. John 
Calderwood, of Louisiana ; Samuel B,, to Cora Solo- 
mon ; Arthur Fort, to Sarah Windsor; Mary P., to 
Thomas J. Mell. Louisa Calderwood lived and died in 
Louisiana, she left no children. Samuel B. became 
a prominent citizen and a leading lawyer of Macon. 
Arthur Fort was a physician, and was a gallant sol- 
dier in the civil war. All of this family except Louisa 
Calderwood lived and died in Georgia. 

The following are the other grand-children of my 

^d parents Arthur and Susannah Fort: 


Children of Arthur and Mary Newsom Fort his 
wife, Elizabeth, Tomlinson, Martha, William, Richard 
and James. 

Children of Lovett Smith and Elizabeth Fort Smith 
his wife, Charlton, Seaborn and Susan. 

Children of Zachariah Cox and Amanda Beckam 
Fort his wife, Mary Elizabeth and Zachariah Cox. 


Mother has written of her early life, of the death 
of her father, which was followed in three years by 
her mother^s death. How she was given charge of her 
brother and sisters by her mother and of the educa- 
tion and the marriages of her sisters and herself. Also 
what charming and superior women her sisters were 
and of their great devotion to each other. This love 
and interest has been continued in their families, the 
cousins growing up almost as sisters. I regret that in 
these pages I can give only a passing notice of my 
mother's relatives, they were so closely identified with 
our family it is difficult to know where to draw the 

Mother had readily embraced the fine opportunities 
which had been given her for an education, which 
were very rare in those days, and was prepared as it 
were, for the great work she was so wisely to fulfill in 
life. It was her mission to have charge of, and super- 
intend the rearing of many youn^ people, how faith- 
fully she discharged this trust all who knew her can 
bear witness. Three generations of her family were 
reared under her care, her brother and sisters, her 
own children, and four of her grand-children. 

Uncle John Porter, the husband of Aunt Ann, was 
a man of noble Christian character, was a Methodist of 
the strictest type and became noted for his deep piety 
and benevolence, he was a planter and busine^^ 
man. His beautiful and hospitable house in Mr^er 


was for many years the home of the Methodist preach- 
ers of Georgia, in the annual changes this church de- 
manded of their ministers. It was at this home that 
mother and father were married, in Madison, Georgia 
October 28th, 1824, by the Reverend Remembrance 
Chamberlain, a Presbyterian minister. They moved 
at once to Milledgeville, mother taking Uncle Joe, 
then a boy six years of age, to live with her. Aunt 
Minerva and Aunt Sarah were still at school, they 
remained in Madison with Aunt Ann. These two 
sisters were married at Aunt Ann's home with a double 
wedding November 22nd, 1831. From Madison to 
Milledgeville was forty-four miles, a day's journey by 
carriage, the sisters and cousins exchanged long and 
frequent visits. Aunt Minerva lived at Cave Springs, 
Georgia, and though so far away was never forgotten, 
she was greatly beloved by them all. These four sis- 
ters were all widows for many years, none of them ap- 
proving of second marriages. 

My father was the leading physician of Milledge- 
ville, and became prominent in the public affairs of 
the State. Three years after his marriage he was sent 
to congress from his district. Mr. Floyd and Mr. 
Johnson, the husbands of Aunt Minerva and Aunt 
Sarah, were prominent lawyers in the sections in 
which they lived. 

Thirteen children were born to our parents, four 
died in infancy. Six daughters and three sons lived 
to be grown, namely : Julia, George, Martha, Susan, 
Kate, Tomlinson, John, Sarah and Fannie. 

Aunt Ann Porter was the mother of six children. 
Elizabeth, married to James A. Wade ; Martha, to 
George W. Williams ; Sarah, to Azariah Graves ; 
Henry, to Fannie Lowry ; William died unmarriod ; 
John died in childhood. 

Aunt Sarah Floyd was the mother of five children, 
•^ha, married to William D. Woodson ; Ann, to 


Joseph Holmes; Mary, to Boling Robinson; Julia, to 
Frederick Foster ; and Stewart, to Rosetta Boling, 

Aunt Minerva Johnson was the mother of seven 
children. Joseph, married to Emily Darden ; Sarah, 
to Joshua Glenn ; Jack Walker, to Lizzie Jones ; Ann, 
Martha, and William Seaborn, are unmarried. Nar- 
cissa and Francis died young. 

This interesting groupe of cousins have generally 
been successful in life, and have stood high as men 
and women in the communities in which they have 
lived. They have enjoyed a lifetime of delightful in- 
tercourse together, I don't think I have ever known 
a family that has been more united. 

Aunt Ann was the first of the sisters to enter the 
spiritual world. She was beloved wherever known, 
her children were peculiarly devoted to her. She 
died and was buried in Madison, Georgia, July 21st, 
1875. Aunt Sarah was for j'^ears an invalid, the 
tender care given her by her son and daughters was 
beautiful to behold. She was witty and beautiful, 
and in appearance resembled our mother more than 
any of the sisters. She died in Blakely, Georgia, in 
1877, and is buried in Madison, Georgia. 


In recalling my childhood, the noble figure of my 
father rises before me. He was six feet and two 
inches in height, and weighed about one hundred and 
eighty pounds. He was a great reader, generally seen 
with a book in his hand ; was of a thoughtful and dig- 
nified demeanor. Mother had usually to administer 
the punishments in this family. He loved to have his 
children around him, and how eagerly we watched for 
his home coming, claiming his hands as we ran to 
meet him, all rushing down the street as he drew 
near on his fine saddle horse "Glimpse", (he always 
rode horse-back at this time). He would smile, stop, 


put down his foot (always incased in heavy boots) 
for us to stand on, and lift up for a ride as many as 
he could carry. And at night we gathered at his 
feet for a song or story, as a story-teller he was 
delightful ; was but a poor singer, but he did his best 
for us. 

Baby Fanny was thought by father and the family 
to be the most wonderful of children born. She was 
the youngest and pet, and was sure of a place in his 
arms. She is now a woman grown, and tells me of 
her devotion to him in her childhood, never telling 
anyone, but in her little prayers she always prayed 
that she might die before he did. I remember his 
telling me a little incident, as he smilingly said, was 
the greatest compliment ever paid him in his life. On 
the suburbs of the town, late one evening, as he was 
riding slowly along on his horse some one called to 
him to stop. It proved to be an old negro man whom 
father knew. He said, "Mars Doctor, I bin long time 
wantin' to tell you, dat you always 'minds me of 
Jesus Christ, you jus' like him, always goin' 'bout 
curin' de sick an' doin' good." 

Father was a natural student, a self educated man 
I have heard him say that for twelve years before his 
marriage he never put out the light in his oflBce at 
night until the clock struck twelve. He attended 
school only one term, schools were scarce in the coun- 
try at this time. He taught himself the Greek and 
Latin necessary in his profession. I must not forget 
those wonderful walks in the woods with him, the 
neighbor's children and ourselves. He loved nature, 
birds especially were his delight. How he instructed 
us, he was a natural teacher. He was one of the 
original subscribers to "Audubon's Birds of America," 
it was issued in pamphlet form and was quite expen- 
sive, brother John is now the owner of these books. 
Father had a wonderful memory with a remarkable 



faculty for imparting knowledge. He gave a series of 
lectures at our home to the neighbors and friends on 
"The Cosmos" that great work by Baron Humboldt. 
I quote from a letter recently received from brother 
John : "Our father was one of the greatest students 
that I ever knew, and the best educated man for his 
opportunities that I have ever known. His fund of 
information and knowledge upon all subjects was so 
remarkable that I can truthfully say that I never saw 
or expect to see his equal. As a writer his style 
and diction are models of perspicuity and beauty. 
At heart he was opposed to slavery." I recall 
hearing him say " I can never look upon my slaves 
with any degree of satisfaction, there ought to be no 
slavery, but what are we to do?" You will see the 
admiration of this family for their father, it has been 
proverbial among their friends. 

My grandfather Fort advanced the money to send 
father to Philadelphia to attend the Jefferson Medical 
College, this money father afterwards repaid. Aunt 
Hunter, one of father's sisters told me that she spun 
and wove the cloth that made the shirts for this trip. 
Father represented Georgia in Congress of 1828 and 
1829, was one of the six members allotted to the State 
at that time. Mother accompanied him to Washing- 
ton, she has written of this memorable event in their 
lives. He was a member of the State Legislature for 
eight years, and never asked for a vote, was often out 
of town on "election day." The oflBce sought the man 
in those times. He belonged to the old "Clarke" 
party in Georgia, was a Democrat and a Union man, 
was with General Jackson on the bank and nullifica- 
tion questions. He always said that the Union was 
stronger than slavery. It was during his term in Con- 
gress that he first met the great South Carolina states- 
man, John C. Calhoun, they became devoted friends, 
father was opposed to, while Calhoun was the apostle 


of nullification, and endeavored to bring father to his 
views. After they separated a long correspondence 
on this subject ensued between them. For years we 
preserved these letters, mother always remarking that 
they might become useful to the historian. They 
were kept in the old secretary in our sitting room 
in Milledgeville. 

During the civil war my sister, Mrs. Morgan, who 
had refugeed from Memphis, Tennessee, was living in 
our home at Milledgeville. On the approach of Sher- 
man's army to Milledgeville, she refugeed to Macon. 
Some of Sherman's officers occupied our house, the 
secretary was broken open, the Calhoun letters (all 
save two that we afterward found) were stolen or 
destroyed. Father was for many years a trustee of 
the University of Georgia at Athens, and generally ^^ 
attended the annual commencements there, accompa- 
nied by mother. Mother graced and enjoyed the social 
side of life, was always ready, as I have heard her say, 
to go with father anywhere he wished to take her. She 
frequently visited his patients with him, and was in 
touch with his work in life. In these days people did 
not visit summer resorts as they do now. There were 
few opportunities of meeting, traveling was difficult, 
and long journeys were taken in private carriages. 
Athens' commencement was therefore a notable occa- 
sion. At this time many of the distinguished men of 
the State and country were gathered there. I think 
it was by appointment here for the last time that 
father and Mr. Calhoun met. Mother told me of the 
meeting, not forgetting to mention that Mr. Calhoun 
had honored her by taking her into dinner at some 
brilliant social function they attended. She described 
the excited conversation at the hotel at night, between 
father and Mr. Calhoun, lasting until two o'clock in 
the morning, Mr. Calhoun, with all his marvelous logic 
and eloquence endeavoring to bring father in sympa- 


thy with his views on nullification. In the morning 
Mr. Calhoun renewed the conversation at the break- 
fast table ; they were to leave soon after, the stage 
was at the door. He followed father to the stage, 
caught him by the coat, exclaiming: " Stop, Doctor; 
give me one more hour, and I know I can convince 
you." They never met again. On account of ill 
health father resigned as trustee of the University. 
At the request of the trustees mother presented his 
portrait to the University and it now hangs in one of 
the halls there. 


This was a time when men stood as security for 
debts for their friends more than they do now. It 
was said of father that his mother had never taught 
him to say no. From this it will be seen that he was 
easily influenced to assume debts of this nature. 
There was a kind of wild speculation in land in this 
new undeveloped country which was followed by the 
great financial crash of 18'I7. People were paralyzed 
and the whole commercial interests of the country 
seemed wrecked. Father was unable to meet his 
obligations, and was advised by friends to take the 
benefit of the bankrupt act. The integrity of his 
character caused him to shrink from this. He is said 
to have remarked that he would prefer to be shot. He 
determined at every sacrifice, if allowed time to pay 
these debts, mother joining heart and hand to aid 
him in doing so. A friend of his said of her that 
as long as Mrs. Fort wore calico to church he would 
go on father's bond, which he did, taking only his note 
of hand without security. Another wealthy friend, on 
the same terms, loaned him twenty thousand ($20,000) 
dollars at one time also without security. When this 
debt was finally settled the interest equaled the 
principal, making forty thousand ($40,000) dollars. 


Mother had not agreed with father in these financial 
ventures, but she was even more eager than he to 
settle all his obligations. Careful economy was prac- 
ticed at home, and we were taught as we grew older 
to avoid debt as the only safe road to happiness and 
prosperity. Mother was almost a Spartan in her views 
on this subject, holding that the debtor was a slave to 
the creditor, in fact if not in name. Later in life 
father became almost a convert to her views, which 
fact was a great comfort to her. She felt that her 
large family cares had caused her to be over anxious 
in many things ; she often felt reproached and would 
say : " I have not had sufficient trust in Providence ; 
I have never wanted for anything in my life." 

Father held many positions of public trust in the 
State. Financial embarrassments, combined with a 
large family, compelled him to retire from public life, 
just as the highest honors within the gift of the State 
were about to be tendered him. The position of Sena- 
tor in Congress was offered him ; also Governor of the 
State. The latter he declined in favor of Governor 
Schley. Governor Schley is the man who so admired 
mother. He said to father that if he was only out of 
the way he would take mother, nine children and all. 

He was at one time president of the Central Bank, 
which was the bank of the State of Georgia, the af- 
fairs of which he conducted with signal ability. The 
bank closed its doors in 1837, but finally paid every 
dollar of indebtedness. These facts are taken from 
men who were better acquainted with his public life 
than I am. 

He was one of the first trustees (there were three) 
and founders of the State Lunatic Asylum. He se- 
lected the spot on which it now stands, saying they 
would have health there, as no malaria could reach 
them, which has proved true ; the institution has been 
noted for its health. Dr. Benjamin A. White, of Mill- 


edgeville, was also one of the trustees of the Asylum 
at this time. He was a near neighbor to us for thirty 
years or more, was a gentleman of the old school, an 
original and unique character. Father and Dr. White 
differed widely as to professional methods, but there 
existed between them a beautiful friendship, which 
was never interrupted during their lives. They were 
devoted to the game of chess. Dr. White coming to 
our house at night to play. The old mahogany 
"candle-stand" was set out with two tallow candles 
in tall silver candle sticks, the snuffers beside. Often 
have I seen them for hours silently intent on the 
game, with an occasional "tres mal " from Dr. White. 
They often played until after midnight and then ate 
supper, both believing that eating conduced to sleep. 
Mother contended that Dr. White was the better 
player, although father would never admit this, as he 
disliked very much to be beaten. Mother excelled as 
a chess player ; she often played with father, also with 
Dr. White, and later in life with Uncle Joe, who was a 
fine player. 

In 1838, father made a purchase of an extensive 
body of land in Tennessee, in and near what is now 
the city of Chattanooga. Three other gentlemen were 
associated with him in this purchase ; George and 
Samuel Williams, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Z. 
B. Hargrove, of Rome, Georgia, Fort and Hargrove 
having one share, George and Samuels Williams the 
other. A few years afterwards father bought out 
Hargrove. With remarkable foresight he always said 
that Chattanooga would be a city, and in all his finan- 
cial difficulties he would never sell these lands. He 
said that this property would make the fortune of his 
children. In his will he provided that it should not 
be divided until the youngest child, Fannie, (then ten 
years old), was twenty-one. The property became 
very valuable, and it was divided in kind after father's 


death. In the fall of 1883, the year of mother's death, 
a part of mother's and Brother George's interests were 
sold. Some of these lots are still unsold 1902. Father 
made several visits to Chattanooga when it was only 
a village, mother often accompanying him. On one 
occasion they rode to the top of Lookout Mountain on 
horseback, going by an Indian trail, single file. There 
were no roads then up the mountain, it was through 
a dense wilderness. Col. James A. Whiteside, a friend 
of father's accompanied the party, he was interested 
in the mountain, and very anxious to have them 
move to Chattanooga to live. Mother described the 
scene to me, as they stood enjoying the grand view. 
Col. Whiteside exclaimed to father: "Make your 
choice. Doctor ; the finest lot on this mountain is 
yours if you will come here to live." 

Father was for many years physician in charge of 
the State penitentiary located at Milledgeville. He 
frequently pronounced the prisoners lunatics and had 
them removed to the asylum, his kindess to them 
was proverbial. We had letters after his death from 
discharged prisoners, in grateful remembrance of him. 
Mother frequently had food prepared and sent to the 
sick in the penitentiary. 

He was for years one of the editors of " The Fed- 
eral Union " at Milledgeville, then the leading Demo- 
cratic newspaper of the State. A prominent man 
said : " Under his leadership it was reverenced and 
obeyed as the organ of his party." 

He had the power of inspiring remarkable confi- 
dence ; in the sick room he stood unrivaled. An 
enthusiastic lady friend said of him that he had a 
" knock-down popularity." As has been truly said of 
him, " he stood at the head of his profession." His 
extensive practice often called him to distant parts of 
the State. He was a clear and forcible writer ; a book 


which he published called " Fort's Medical Practice" 
added greatly to his reputation. 

He was prominent among the distinguished men 
of the State, Milledgeville was the capital and 
often interesting meetings were held at our home. 
Mother assisted with a generous hospitality. Fre- 
quently have I seen at our house brilliant entertain- 
ments of ladies and gentlemen assembled, at dinners 
and suppers, with a flow of wit and wine. Wilkes 
Flagg (a colored man who had once belonged to us 
and was noted as a waiter), was generally on hand to 
serve the hot apple toddy, a famous drink at that 
time, it is now almost unknown. The present day of 
" Ladies' High Teas " had not come in fashion. We 
kept what was then called an "open house," friends 
constantly coming and going. I have heard mother 
describe a visit made her by Miss Octavio Walton, a 
famous Southern belle from Florida. Her father was 
a friend of father's and her grandfather one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence from 
Georgia. Her sparkling brilliancy, her grace and 
powers of entertaining a room filled with people, 
made her renowned. She preferred gentlemen, caring 
little for women. While not considered a beauty she 
was very handsome and charming, and fascinating 
beyond words. After an evening of entertaining she 
would retire to her room, throw herself on the bed 
exhausted, as my mother said, she was an actress and 
a good one. She had beautiful hands, but one of her 
greatest attractions was her exquisite voice. She 
always carried her guitar with her, playing and sing- 
ing to its accompaniment with thrilling effect. Her 
father held an office under the government and lived 
at an army post. Miss Walton had learned from the 
officers and knew how to use them, many songs of pas- 
sionate love and heroism. Her visit lasted ten days, 
and was one round of excitement and ovation in her 


'public library' 


^ Astor, Lenox and Tiiden // 
Four datwns. 


honor. For years it was a standing joke with the ladies 
of Milledgeville how all the men married and single, 
went wild, and were running around after her carry- 
ing her guitar and singing her songs. It was some 
time before the good wives could restore their hus- 
bands to order. 

A crowd followed her to the steamboat landing on 
the Oconee river where she took the steamer for Da- 
rien. This was before the days of railroads in that 
section. Miss Walton afterwards became the famous 
Madam LeVerte, of Mobile, Alabama. She traveled 
extensively and was presented to Queen Victoria, 
at the British Court in London. She was a talented 
woman and wrote a brilliant book called "Souvenirs 
of Travel." 

Father was the physician and friend of all the 
Democratic Governors of Georgia of his time. Be- 
ginning with Clarke, Lumpkin, Gilmer, Schley, Mc- 
Donald, Townes, Johnson and Brown. Among other 
prominent men who visited at our house, were Judge 
John McPherson Berrien, William H. Styles, John E. 
Ward of Savannah, Bishops Elliott and Capers of 
Georgia, the Hon. Mr. Pettigrew, the distinguished 
lawyer of Charleston, South Carolina, and the noted 
Bill}'- Springer, famous for his graceful manners, his 
talents, his size and his appetite. He weighed five 
hundred pounds, I think it was, a servant generally 
carried his chair around for him. He drank at our 
house one evening fifteen cups of coffee, this is cor- 
rect, I think. He took a seat at Governor McDonald's 
on one of those spindle-legged sofas of that day and 
all of the legs were broken off. How the memory of 
those " days that are no more " rise before me, but I 
must forbear. 

Father was a liberal thinker, an earnest seeker 


after truth in all things. He taught us that we had 
no right to form an opinion on subjects of which we 
knew nothing, that we must investigate before we 
approved or condemned. Although not a church 
member, he was a constant student of the Bible, often 
have I seen him bending over it, he was not of an 
orthodox turn of mind, and could not accept the 
creeds of the churches. Both father and mother were 
admirers of the ministers as men of character and 
talents, they were always entertained at our house 
during the church conventions. 

In the meantime the sons and daughters of this 
large household were growing up and participating in 
this busy active life. I know it is a partial hand that 
wields this pen, and in this chronicle the black sheep, 
that is said to be in all families will be hard to find, 
but it is a true picture notwithstanding, if a bit col- 
ored by the warmth of love. "Sister Julia," as she was 
called by every child in the family became an elegant 
and accomplished young woman. Mother always in- 
sisted that she was beautiful, although some may have 
differed with her in this opinion. She was quite a 
belle, was more admired in society than any of the 
other daughters, mother and father were very proud 
of her. She was my mother's right hand and was uni- 
versally beloved in the family. She married at the 
age of nineteen in Milledgeville, Georgia, April 
15th, 1846, Colonel Edward David Huguenin of 
Savannah, Georgia. He was a widower with one 
child, a girl of twelve years, was a handsome man 
of wealth and position, with black hair and eyes and 
very elegant manners. I was a child of eight at that 
time and the wedding stands vividly before me. I 
recall seeing the bride descend the old fashioned 
stairs with her two attendants, Misses Mary Lou Boze- 
man and Annie Park, the groomsmen were Mr. Rob- 
ert Smith of Macon and Uncle Joe Fannin. (Col. 


Smith became a noted Confederate oflBcer and was 
killed in the Civil war.) The bride's dress was of 
white tarletan, with a white embroidered lace veil 
reaching a little below the waist. She wore a set of 
silver jewelry, long ear-rings, an ornament for the 
hair, a pin and a bracelet. These were a wedding 
present which had been sent by the daughters of Uncle 
Abram Fannin of Savannah. This was I think, the 
only present she received, to give wedding presents 
was not fashionable at that time. Always a timid 
child, and frightened by the stillness and the awe of 
the occasion, I burst into tears and had to be taken 
from the room. Colonel Huguenin became a man 
of large wealth, owned several hundred slaves and 
large plantations in South Georgia, was a prominent 
and successful cotton planter. 

A noted event in the ante-bellum days in all 
Southern households, especially on the large planta- 
tions, was what was termed " hog-killing time." It 
began with the first cold weather generally about 
Christmas. It was a terrible labor, dreaded by the 
mistress of the house but hailed with delight by the 
negroes, they adore the hog. All was busy excitement 
as the great hogs were brought in, the children claim- 
ing the tails to cook, a dainty mosel they thought 
them. Every home, even in the large towns had its 
" smoke-house " for preserving the meat, to cure fine 
hams was the pride of all Southern house-keepers. 
About three hundred hogs were raised and put up 
annually on the Huguenin plantations. The South 
was a land of plenty in those days, with all hands at 
work the country blossomed as the rose. The care of 
the sick and other onerous duties of the master and 
mistress on all well appointed plantations had to be 
seen to be appreciated. Not far from the " White- 
house " were the " Quarters " as they were termed, or 
homes of the slaves, always gay with crowds of merry, 


frolicing negro children. In the fall, at the " corn- 
shuckings " it was thrilling to hear the wonderful 
singing, at night it could often be heard for miles. 
Music is the peculiar genius of these African peo- 
ple. At the harvest season the master always 
gave the negroes a great barbecue, and at Christ- 
mas what a holiday and merry making there was 
on the plantations, the dancing often lasting until 
broad day light, I have known great Ohritmas trees 
and fire-works given at Christmas for them. All of 
this is a thing of the past, the slave of the South has 
disappeared, I trust never to return. 

Colonel Huguenin bought a handsome home in 
Macon, Georgia, where they located. They followed 
the life of the wealthy Southern planters, generally 
went North or to some watering place during the sum- 
mer, the winters were spent in Macon and on the 
plantations. His favorite home was "the winter place" 
in southwestern Georgia, as he said he never tired of 
looking on his fields, which in those days of plenty, 
were always covered with grand crops. Like the ma- 
jority of Southern gentlemen, he was very fond of 
hunting, kept fine bird dogs and a pack of hounds and 
had great sport camp hunting for deer in South Geor- 
gia. Rosa, his daughter by his first marriage, was 
reared by her grandmother Huguenin in Savannah, 
she used to visit but never lived with sister Julia, she 
married Colonel William G. Delony, who became a 
gallant Confederate soldier and colonel of a regiment, 
he was killed in Virginia while bravely leading his 
regiment during the Civil war. He was highly es- 
teemed in Athens, Georgia, where he lived. Five 
children were born to my sister and Colonel Hugue- 
nin, namely, Martha Fannin, Edward David, Eliza 
Villarde, Julia Emily and Theodora Eugenia. They 
resembled their father's family, were remarkably 
beautiful children. Colonel Huguenin was greatly 


interested in the Civil War, he equipped a Confed- 
erate company from Macon which was named in his 
honor, "The Huguenin Rifles," it was under the com- 
mand of Captain Cicero Tharp. After a lingering ill- 
ness Colonel Huguenin died in Macon, March 1, 1863, 
and was buried in Milledgeville. He left a large estate 
valued at this time (when negroes were high) at about 
one million dollars. His will towards his wife was 
most generous, she was left the handsome home in 
Macon and everything pertaining to it, the furniture, 
house servants, carriage and horses, and a child's part 
in the estate. He left a sum of thirty thousand dol- 
lars, to be invested in Confederate bonds to endow a 
school in Bibb County, Georgia, for the education of 
orphan girls. The war rendering Confederate money 
valueless, this part of the will of course, was never 
carried out. Mother believed in diversified interests, 
and advised him to invest something in bonds, but he 
always said that he only understood planting. His 
property therefore consisted only of land and negroes, 
and by the failure of the war the estate was almost 


Sister Martha was a very intellectual woman. She 
was handsome, of commanding presence being the 
largest of the daughters, and resembled father we 
thought, more than any of the family in her philo- 
sophic turn of mind. She was a remarkable musician, 
playing and composing on both the piano and guitar, 
with the gift of genius. She was married in Milledge- 
ville at the age of nineteen by the Reverend Mr. Foote 
on September 19, 1854, to Robert Jarrold Morgan, a 
lawyer of standing from Lagrange, Georgia. He was 
a man of very pleasing manners, a widower of twenty- 
eight years, with no children. This wedding was a 
notable family event, Col. Huguenin, Sister Julia and 


daughter Martha came from Macon, Aunt Ann 
Porter, Aunt Sarah Floyd, with Cousins Martha and 
Sallie Porter from Madison, and a large bridal party 
from Lagrange. I remember the preparations taking 
place, the piles of snowy garments all made by hand, 
this was before the days of the sewing machines, like 
the majority of Southern families we owned our own 
seamstress to assist in the household sewing. And 
the cooking that was going on for this wedding for a 
week and more, all done at home. There were won- 
derful cakes, tall white pyramids, decorated by friends 
in the most artistic style of the day, in gold and silver 
leaf, lace work and flowers. The bewildering excite- 
ment and crush at the supper, with its separate cake 
and meat tables groaning under whole barbecued pigs 
and turkeys, this was the fashion of the day. The 
bride was dressed in a handsome white brocaded silk, 
(a present from Mrs. Governor McDonald), a wreath 
of orange blossoms and a long tulle veil. A number 
of bridal presents were received, the fashion was be- 
ginning, which has now grown to such proportions. 
The bride and groom left the next day for Lagrange, 
Georgia, their future home. A few years later Mr. 
Morgan decided to move to Memphis, Tennessee, 
where they permanently located. He was a whig in 
politics and opposed to secession, but when the war 
broke out he joined the Democrats and entered the 
Confederate service. He raised and organized the 
Thirty-sixth Tennessee Regiment, served with it for 
two years, when he was appointed on the staff of 
Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk, as Judge Advo- 
cate General where he served until the death of Gen- 
eral Polk. Afterwards he was appointed Judge of 
the Confederate Court of Claims, which position he 
occupied until the close of the war. General Polk 
was killed at Marietta, Georgia, June 14, 1864, Col- 
onel Morgan was with him at the time. 


After the war he returned with his family to 
Memphis where he resumed his profession in which 
he became quite distinguished. He had been a man 
of fortune, but lost everything by the war. He was 
ten years on the bench as first chancellor of Memphis, 
was at one time a prominent candidate for Governor 
of Tennessee. His marriage to my sister was un- 
usually congenial and happy, three children were 
born to them, namely, Mary Louisa, Tomlinson Fort, 
and John Ellington. Tomlinson was born in Mem- 
phis, he died in childhood and is buried there. Mary 
Louisa became a very handsome girl, she married 
John R. Keightly of Memphis a marriage which 
proved to be incompatible. In a few years they were 
divorced, and Mary Lou was married the second time 
at Oxford, Ohio, to Perry W. Witt, they lived in Chi- 
cago, niinois, Mary Lou had no children. She died at 
Chicago August 16, 1902, and is interred in Hender- 
son, Kentucky. John Ellington Morgan is a tall 
handsome man, steady and upright, has never mar- 
ried, he is a business man and lives in Memphis. 

Mother has mentioned Lizzie Ingram, a bright 
orphan girl who lived with us many years. She was 
devoted to our family, and was married during the 
war in 1861, in our house at Milledgeville, to a clever, 
intelligent young man of Lagrange, Georga, Mr. 
Robert C. Humber, who was then a lieutenant in the 
army of Virginia. This war wedding took place on a 
fast day, the simple refreshments served were not 
touched by the few guests present, the bride and 
groom left at once for Lagrange. After the war Mr. 
Humber became a successful planter, settled in Put- 
nam county, Georgia, where they reared an interesting 
family of seven children. 

We fasted religiously during the war, how we 
strove in every way for success, none but those who 
lived at this time can know. It is difficult now to 


realize the intensity of our feelings, we had no thought 
but to conquer in this great contest. 

An orphan niece of father's, a daughter of Uncle 
Zachariah Fort, lived with us many years, she married 
at our home in Milledgeville about 1860; Miss Mary 
Elizabeth Fort to Mr. John W. Duncan, an intelligent 
lawyer. Cousin Lizzie as we always called her, 
would only have a small wedding, they left at once 
for Atlanta, where they located. She is a bright, 
intelligent woman, has been a widow for years and 
is still living in Atlanta, Georgia, 1902. 

With all this large household one can imagine the 
brightness of our home circle. Uncle Joe and Lizzie 
Ingram were unique characters, the remembrance of 
their brilliant wit and humor still live in the family 
annals. Mother a natural social leader, gracefully 
introduced her daughters into society. Knowing my 
father's financial embarrassments we were simply 
dressed. Every possible opportunity for improve- 
was given us, she taught us music herself and we 
gave much attention to the study of French. 

The holiday season was always a brilliant occasion 
with us. Every Christmas we had a large and hand- 
some Christmas tree arranged in the front parlor, the 
members of the household vieing in kindly remem- 
brances to each other. The servants were invited in, 
they stood against the wall, their ebony faces gleam- 
ing with pleasure, they were always remembered 
and enjoyed it as much as children. After Brother 
George's death John assumed the position of "pater- 
familias " in the family and presided at the tree, the 
day ending in a great family dinner party. 

The life at our home during the sessions of the 
Legislature is a bright picture before me. Our charm- 
ing cousins from Madison were frequently with us. 
Cousin Martha Porter, the belle and beauty of the 
family and mother's namesake. Cousin Sallie Porter 


and Cousin Goudalock Saffold. Afterwards Cousins 
Mollie Floyd, Mollie Hunter and Martha Johnson, 
often five or six young ladies were in the house at 
once. At night with these bright girls and a crowd of 
gallant beaux, merry voices and beautiful singing at 
the piano, it seemed as if there was a party every 
night. Anon sable " Mammy Nancy " appeared serv- 
ing brandy peaches, or fruit cake and wine. These 
were days when brilliant conversation was the fashion 
of the day, card playing was unknown in our social 
life. And the many delightful family re-unions, the 
visits of Sister Julia and children at Christmas, later 
came Sister Martha and children all meeting at the 
home in Milledgeville. Sister Julia inaugurated our 
Chritmas trees. The old homestead was a large ten 
room house including basement, the kitchen and ser- 
vants' room were in the yard. Mother was a good 
provider, and I have never known her excelled as an 
amateur gardener. Flowers were a passion with her, 
the green house being a special pet, father joining 
her in interest with the flowers, he always grafted 
her orange trees which were her particular favorites. 

A nephew of father's, Arthur Rossetter, lived in 
Florida, where there were poor schools. Mother sent 
for his daughter, Martha, (her namesake) to come to 
Milledgeville and attend school with Sallie. She lived 
with us about two years, and has made a superior 
woman. She married Mr. R. H. Sheldon, has two chil- 
dren and lives in Florida. 

I will give another incident in father's life, while 
president of the Central Bank of Georgia, he went 
north on business for the bank. Arriving in New 
York City he registered at a hotel, and was shown a 
room up, up, innumerable flights of stairs in the attic. 
Always indifferent as to his dress, I have no doubt he 
appeared like a shabby looking countryman. Before 
going out to attend to some business, he deposited with 


the clerk at the hotel a large sum of money belonging 
to the bank. On his return he was met at the door 
by the proprietor and clerk bowing obsequiously and 
apologizing for having given him so poor a room, he 
had been moved, was ushered into one of the best 
rooms in the house on the first floor. You may be sure 
that he was in want of no attention during the 
remainder of his stay. Returning home, he spent 
one night in Charleston, South Carolina, I can- 
not remember to have heard whether the fever 
was there at this time, but think it was. Soon after 
his return he was seized with a very violent at- 
tack of yellow fever, the physicians assembled in 
consultation said that he could not live. He called 
my mother to the bedside, told her not to despair, (his 
mind was perfectly clear) that he had not given up 
hope, and as long as he had this pulse (feeling it the 
meanwhile) he could live and he thought he would 
recover. He recovered, was very slow in regaining 
his strength, but mother thought him never so strong 
as he had been before this attack. 


Brother George had adopted father's profession, he 
was a natural physician, was a man of culture and 
intelligence with most pleasing manners. He was 
sent to Philadelphia, where he attended as father had 
done, the Jefferson Medical College. On account of 
failing health brother did not return to Philadelphia 
but graduated at the Medical College of Augusta, 
Georgia, which was nearer home. In father's declin- 
ing health he had taken charge of his large practice, 
and had become one of the leading physicians of 
Milledgeville. Brother was never strong, this drew 
him peculiarly near to mother, their devotion to each 
other was beautiful. 

How different at that time from the present, was 


the business of a physician conducted. Father seemed 
to live on horseback, never using a buggy until his 
health began to fail. His favorite riding horse was 
called Glympse, she was the pet of the family, and so 
gentle that any of the children could ride her. We 
had a pony called Jovian, and often rode with father 
in the country on short trips. Glympse had never 
been in harness, father decided that she must be 
broken to drive in a buggy. We were all seated at the 
dinner table when the news was brought that in 
attempting to harness Glympse she had fallen and 
broken her neck. We rushed from the table, amid 
such a scene of weeping and lamentation. We were 
taught to be kind to animals, the two setter dogs, 
Tobe and Fleet, with Gyp, the pet poodle of Sister 
Susan were like members of the family. After Sue's 
death Gyp died, he refused to eat and we thought 
died of grief. 

Here is a little snake story told us by father. He 
said that he had always thought the idea of the hair 
rising on the head from fright was not true. One day 
riding along in the woods, he heard near him the 
sound of a rattle-snake. Always desiring to kill a 
snake if possible, he got down from his horse, armed 
himself with what he thought was a stout rail from a 
fence near by. He found the snake coiled ready to 
strike and aimed a death blow at him, the rail broke 
in pieces and the snake sprang at him, just missing 
his head. He distinctly felt his hat rise, it came near 
falling from his head. He secured a better stick and 
killed the snake, was frightened for once in his life if 
never before. His children thought that he could 
never know fear, in all danger if he was near we flew 
to him for protection. 

His profession averaged him, for many years, ten 
thousand dollars a year. Ever benevolent, his services 
were given alike, to the rich and the poor, he was not a 


good collector. His oflSce which as children we called 
"father's shop," was a small house of two rooms, built 
in the garden a short distance from the house fronting 
on the street. All physicians' offices were then called 
doctors' shops. Father's medicine's were ordered from 
the North and kept in the office (a small drug store it 
was), prescriptions were compounded here by himself 
or his students. 

After Sister Martha's marriage the next daughter 
was our lovely Sister Susan, the children brought 
their troubles to her and were always sure of her sym- 
pathy, her sweet influence will ever linger with us. 
She was a charming attractive girl, but from her feeble 
organization, was able to go but little into society. 
On April 19th, 1859 she passed into the spiritual world, 
aged twenty-three years. She had as it were, been set 
apart, having never been able to join in the sports of 
the young. She was always under father's tender- 
est care, the children were carefully trained to play 
gently with her, and never under any circumstances 
strike her. Her death was a great shock to us. 

Three weeks after Sister Susan's death we lost our 
dear father. He died May 11th, 1859, universally es- 
teemed by all who knew him, as one writer said of 
him, "His lips were never known to utter a falsehood, 
no stain rests upon his name." The funeral was large, 
the civic and military bodies of the city attended and 
all stores were closed during the exercises. Dr. Sam- 
uel K. Talmage, of Oglethorpe University, and Rev. 
William Flinn, both ..of the Presbyterian church, 
officiated at the funeral. We were members of the 
congregation of the Presbyterian church. The great 
respect paid our father was very gratifying to us, 
showing the high esteem in which he was held by the 
people among whom he had labored and lived so long. 
He located in Milledgeville, in about 1806 or 1807 and 
had lived there fifty-three years. We sympathized 


with mother, she had been devoted to father, we all 
felt deeply the shock of this double sorrow. Father 
had lived to pay almost all of his entire indebtedndess. 
Brother George now became with mother the head of 
the family, he was almost a second father to us, taking 
a paternal interest in the boys, Tom and John, with 
Fannie for a special pet. He proved to be a fine busi- 
ness man and was in thorough sympathy with mother 
in her views regarding business. She had superior 
talents as a business woman, her great maxim was to 
keep out of debt, debt she considered slavery and ruin. 
The estate was admirably managed, the property 
placed on a paying basis, and the debts were soon 
paid. We owned some valuble city property in Mill- 
edgeville, the home there had been left to mother, 
and a child's part of the estate. We had never desired 
to be large slave owners, only our house servants, 
their children and a few others belonged to us. The 
property in Chattanooga has been mentioned, this 
was considered the most valuable part of our estate. 


In 1861 the fearful Civil War, sometimes called 
the Rebellion began, as I don't like the word Rebell- 
ion, I shall call it the Civil War, those dark and 
stormy days are graven on my memory. In the wild 
excitement of secession, reason seemed swept away in 
a whirl of passion. There was the rush to arms, the 
drum, the fife, the hushed crowds at the depots to see 
the soldiers off to the war, alas, many never to return. 
The news of the battles, the anguish, the sorrow, the 
wounded, the dead, four years of trial and trouble, of 
hope and despair. The most distinguished men of the 
State soon assembled at Milledgeville to attend the 
secession convention, Herschel V. Johnson, Robert 
Toombs, Alexander Stephens, Thomas R. R. Cobb, 
Francis Bartow and others. I attended this conven- 


tion, the air seemed thrilled with the gravity of the 
hour, the old capitol trembled under the burning el- 
oquence of these great statesmen, it was a battle of 
giants. In vain they cried peace, when there was no 
peace, the die was cast and Georgia, following the 
lead of her sister States, seceded from the Union Jan- 
uary 19th, 1861. 

Father before his death, had seemed to presage 
the storm that was to burst over the country, he said 
when the issue came that the Union would be found 
stronger than slavery, and regretted that he could not 
leave his family in a free State. Mother was devoted 
to the union, she trembled before the horrors of war, 
which she felt was near at hand. Sad was "secession 
day" for her, and amid all the wild rejoicing over the 
passage of secession, she would have no bonfires or il- 
luminations at our house. 

Our household were divided on this great question, 
mother. Uncle Joe and Brother George for the Union, 
the younger members going for secession. Uncle Joe 
was a Douglas Democrat of the deepest dye, such a 
partisan and politician it was difficult to find. There 
was always a warm war of words when he took sides, 
which he generally did, but when war was finally 
declared all joined hands for the South, our country, 
to defend it right or wrong. At a meeting of the 
ladies in Milledgeville mother was elected president 
of the " Soldiers' Relief Society " and devoted herself 
to its onerous duties, entering upon the work heart 
and soul. Miss Rebecca Harris was elected secretary 
and I her assistant. We women were untiring in our 
devotion to the Southern cause, no sacrifice was 
beyond us. The carpets from our houses were given 
to the soldiers for blankets, we even made cartridges to 
shoot the " Yankees," which seems terrible to me now. 

Tomlinson and John were both graduates of Ogle- 
thorpe University, which was then located at Midway 


two miles from Milledgeville. This school once very- 
flourishing, was closed by the war, and has since been 
abandoned. Tom, we considered exceptionally bright, 
he was a tall manly fellow, a favorite brother of mine 
and just twenty-one. He was admitted to the bar in 
Milledgeville in 1858, and had spent several months in 
the law office of Colonel George A. Gordon of Savan- 
nah. He returned home at father's death, but from 
the disturbed condition of the country (the war was 
at hand), he had not permanently located in his pro- 
fession. He reported for several newspapers in the 
Legislature at Milledgeville, during the winters of 
1857-1859, 1860 and 1861 and in the spring of '61 
entered the army. The State of Georgia had ordered 
two regiments raised to be called the First and Second 
Georgia Regulars. Governor Brown appointed Tom a 
first lieutenant in the First Georgia Regulars, then 
under the command of Colonel Charles Williams. 
Tom was a young man of energy and force, he had 
been an ardent secessionist, and entered with enthus- 
iasm upon his military duties. How brave and 
handsome we thought him in his brilliant uniform. 
Confederate uniforms were dazzling in brass buttons 
and gold lace in the early days of the war. What a 
change was wrought in those four dreadful years that 
followed. Tom's Regiment was ordered first to Tybee 
Island Fort Pulaski Georgia, in July, 1861, from there 
they were sent to Virginia, the great battle ground of 
the Confederacy. The war fever increased in intensity, 
every able bodied man in the South was hurrying to 
the front, among them dear John, our youngest 
brother, he was but a boy, being only nineteen years 
old. In vain mother pleaded " wait a little longer," 
go he would and did. The "Baldwin Blues," Captain 
George Doles, commanding (he afterwards became 
General Doles) was the first company that left 
Milledgeville, John's was the second. It was named 


the "Baldwin Volunteers" complimentary to my 
father, that being the name 'of the company he com- 
manded in the war of 1812. At first we thought it 
grand to hear the drum beat and see the soldiers 
march by, knowing not what war was, now alas ; we felt 
the awful reality that was upon us. Never shall I 
forget the scene when this company left. The early 
dawn, the soldiers marching by, in gray uniforms, guns 
and knap-sacks, drum and fife, to the tune of "The 
Girl I Left Behind Me." At the depot, the fervent 
"God bless you", the wailing, the sobbing, the tears, 
the waving handkerchiefs, and faint melancholy 
cheering as the train drew out of the depot amid the 
shrieking of the fife "The Girl I Left Behind Me", a 
tune that has since seemed a funeral dirge to me. 
Mother bade good-bye to John at home, she was so 
overwhelmed with grief she felt unequal to going to 
the depot. She sewed in John's coat a ten dollar gold 
piece, to be used only in a great emergency, John car- 
ried it through the war. After his return home it 
was stolen by a negro boy in the house, just as if it 
had been an ordinary dollar, a mockery as it were, on 
saving money. The "Baldwin Volunteers", (Captain 
Beck commanding), were in the Ninth Georgia Regi- 
ment, Captain Beck was elected Colonel, they were 
ordered to Virginia. Mother felt that it was almost 
more than she could bear when brother George 
decided that he must go into the army. He accepted 
a position as surgeon of the Twenty-eighth Georgia in 
command of Colonel Worthern, the regiment was 
ordered to Virginia, where the great armies of the 
South were assembled. Anxious were the hearts at 
home with all three brothers in the field, they spent 
the winter of 1861 and 1862 in winter quarters in 
Virginia, these were rude log cabins built by the 
soldiers. John was broken down under the hardships 
endured, and brother not being able to stand the 


fatigue of camp life was compelled to resign. He 
obtained a furlough for John and they came home 
together, a joyful welcome was given these soldier 
brothers. John slowly regained his health, as soon as 
he was able for duty he was transferred to a cavalry 
company in Florida where he served several months. 
He was then appointed second lieutenant in Tom's 
regiment, the First Georgia Regulars, where he served 
until the close of the war. John was a brave, faithful 
soldier, he was never wounded, was complimented by 
his colonel in a special order before the regiment, for 
coolness and courage under fire while acting adjutant 
of his regiment. The first battle of Manassas took 
place July 21st, 1861, it electrified the country North 
and South. The South while shouting over this great 
victory was mourning her dead, among those killed 
were Generals Frank Bartow of Georgia and Barnard 
Bee of South Carolina. The older people were shocked, 
that amid this universal sorrow the young could still 
dance, but youth must and will have recreation in war 
as well as peace, and the furloughed soldiers who were 
continually at home, were social lions and eager for the 
dance. We only worked the harder, all of the women 
werek nitting, mother with her own hands knit over 
one hundred pairs of socks for the soldiers. Our witty 
young sister Sallie, wrote on the back of a coat she 
made, ' if the soldier fights as bravely as the girl who 
made this coat talks, the Yankees will never see the 
back of it." We wore homespun dresses, rough leather 
shoes, home-made gloves, made fans, buttons, and 
invented a little of everything we needed. We turned 
and remade our dresses and I have always thought 
that the girls looked quite as stylish and pretty then 
as they do in the fashionable dresses of to-day. We 
extracted salt (so much needed) by boiling dirt taken 
from the floors of our smokehouses, made coffee from 
rye and okra seed, tea from blackberry leaves, paid 


thirty dollars a yard for calico and muslin, everything 
else was high in proportion. 

Tom received his first wound at Malvern Hill in 
Virginia, July Ist, 1862, he had two ribs broken and 
was sent home on a furlough, recovering soon from 
this, he returned to the army. At the second battle of 
Manassas, August 30th, 1862, he was again wounded 
and came home on crutches with a broken leg. I re- 
member how shocked we were as the omnibus stopped 
at our door in Milledgeville and all hands were assist- 
ing the wounded soldier out, with his baggage which 
consisted of a very few shabby bundles and a cloth 
haversack which appeared to have once been white. 
There was a picture in it of Stonewall Jackson, this 
had been brought to me from Richmond. It was rude, 
yet more valuable than diamonds, being the first 
picture we had seen of that great hero of the war. 
The South had not a more faithful devoted soldier 
than Tom., his vigorous constitution enabled him in 
about six months to rejoin his regiment. 


Eight months after Colonel Huguenin's death sister 
Julia died, mother has given an account of her tragic 
death. The horses were running away, in jumping 
from her carriage she received fatal injuries, lingered 
two months and died, November 30, 1863. She was a 
charming and accomplished woman, possessing great 
energy and executive ability. Thus taken from her 
young family, her death was universally regretted and 
was a severe shock and loss to us, she was the eldest 
child arid our parents had looked upon her with 
peculiar pride. In her will she left her house in 
Macon with the carriage, horses, furniture and house 
servants to mother, and desired her to come there to 
live, if it was agreeable for her to do so. Her last 
hours were remarkable and most comforting, she had 


her children, mother and all of the family called to 
her bedside. With a clear mind and voice she ex- 
pressed a willingness to die if God willed, giving her 
children into the hands of mother and brother George, 
to rear and educate as they thought best. Brother's 
feeble health had compelled him to retire from the 
practice of his profession. He was left one of the 
executors on the estate of Colonel Huguenin, the others 
declining to act, he was now the only executor 
of this large estate and thought it best for us to 
move to Macon. The war had so broken up the 
schools in Milledgeville, we were almost forced to 
move to educate the children, as mother said she made 
the sacrifice, a sacrifice indeed it was to both Uncle 
Joe and herself. They had lived in Milledgeville 
forty years, were deeply attached to the place and left 
it with genuine sorrow. 

In January 1864, we moved to Macon, the white 
family numbered ten, while the negroes in the kitch- 
en including children were thirteen. An appalling 
family this would seem now, yet the Southern people 
were accustomed to large families, and all moved in 
harmony and order. Having all of the Huguenin ser- 
vants, we only took to Macon our favorite nurse, aunt 
Nancy, with one child. I went first, taking the chil- 
dren to enter them at school, mother coming later. 

We continued our work for the soldiers, Macon 
was now a vast hospital, there was said to be twenty 
thousand sick and wounded in and around the city. 
The churches with every available public building 
were pressed into service, the people took the sick and 
wounded soldiers into their houses, and nad their 
yards filled with tents, the women assisting in every 
way possible in nursing them. Mother preferred to 
work in the hospitals, with our large family she could 
not take the soldiers into the house, but took 
charge of a ward in the Blind Asylum Hospital, she 


was almost a daily visitor there, sending them break- 
fast from our home, sister Sallie, a servant and my- 
self accompanied her. The soldiers went wild over 
the vegetables from the fine garden we had that sum- 
mer. Mother and brother George had great appre- 
hension as to the result of the war, and made every 
effort to provide for the future living of our large 
family. Quantities of provisions were brought from 
the plantations in Sumter County and stored at the 
home, even the attic was filled with hams, hidden 
from the Yankees. The battles were going on around 
Atlanta, the people were flying from their homes, 
while Sherman with fire and sword swept through 
Georgia. This was the famous " Sherman's March," 
(so called), not very dangerous to Sherman or his 
army, with nothing to oppose them but the women 
and children, every man in the country had long been 
at the front. The Yankee soldiers spread terror be- 
fore them, they were like the locusts, consuming the 
country as they advanced. Fearful were the stories 
told of the devastation of this army, they left a 
track of desolation, burned homes, railroads torn up, 
and ruin everywhere. Long wagon trains of provis- 
ions were immediately sent from Macon to feed the 
starving people on Sherman's track, horrible is war. 
But all of this belongs to history. 

As Sherman approached on Milledgeville sister 
Martha Morgan who was living in our home there, 
refugeed to Macon and the house was occupied by 
some of the Federal oflBcers. Mother made frequent 
visits to Milledgeville in these days, generally re- 
turning with many packages. On one occasion, Ed- 
ward Huguenin, her young grandson accompanied 
her, being very fond of pets, he insisted upon bring- 
ing an old drake home in his arms. When the train 
arrived at Gordon, a small station about fifteen miles 
from Macon, there were wild rumors of "the Yankees, 


the Yankees are coming;." Panic stricken the people 
crowded into the cars and forced the engineer to leave. 
Scarcely was the train out of sight before the Yankee 
General Stoneman, and his cavalry raiders came 
rushing upon the town. They burned the depot and 
much valuable property with piles of baggage belong- 
ing to the refugees, tore up the railroad, and left as 
quickly as they had come. The cars due in Macon at 
eight o'clock did not arrive until twelve that night. At 
midnight, here came our big-hearted mother, followed 
by Edward still holding the drake, and a crowd of 
refugeed friends she had met on the train, all were 
exhausted by the exciting scenes through which they 
had passed. We made beds on the tioor and took in 
the distracted refugees. Even amid all this we could 
laugh, as one lady friend kept exclaiming every mo- 
ment, "Oh ! I have lost my baggage and my brother," 
the baggage being preferred to the brother. The 
grave and the gay constantly jostle each other in the 
world. This was Stoneman's raid, it was an attempt 
to destroy the railroads going into Macon, it took 
place in August 1864. General Cobb then in com- 
mand at Macon sent out a force who surrounded and 
captured General Stoneman and his entire command, 
of about two hundred men. A Confederate soldier, 
who was present when they were brought into Macon, 
told me that the most furious man he had ever seen 
was General Stoneman. He filled the air with im- 
precations and curses loud and deep, at his misfor- 
tune, while the Confederates were shouting with joy 
over his capture. 

Stirring and exciting scenes have I witnessed at the 
hospital when the wounded soldiers were brought from 
the front, to see them moved from the ambulances, with 
groans, half clothed and clamoring for food. After 
such a scene one morning mother rushed home, call- 
ing to us as she entered the house "here all hands, 


come into the kitchen and go to cooking, go to cook- 
ing," which we did at once. Soon we were again on 
our way to the hospital with large waiters of food and 
fresh vegetables for our poor soldiers. Mother was a 
bountiful house-keeper of the olden time, making 
vinegar and soap by the barrel, and quantities of 
blackberry wine, all of the surplus was given to those 
who were in need, this now came in for the soldiers, 
gladly we shared with them whatever we had and how 
they did enjoy it. One day we noticed a large body 
of cavalry, ragged and travel worn, passing our door. 
"What soldiers are these?" we asked. "Wheeler, 
Wheeler," they shouted, the samegeneralJoe Wheeler 
of to-day, who was then a noted Confederate cavalry 
leader. "Quick, bring food, feed them," we cried, and 
instantly large waiters were brought out. Straight up 
the steep hill we lived on, rode those rough wild look- 
ing soldiers, cheering us as they came, and nearly 
running over the servants, they seized from the wait- 
ers the food, and turning their horses like a flash, 
were soon back in their places hurrying on, we knew 
not where. On another occasion Sallie and myself 
were visiting in Madison during the war, at the beau- 
tiful home of our dear Aunt Ann Porter, the house 
was situated on a commanding hill very near the de- 
pot. Suddenly, as the cars stopped, there were cries 
of "the soldiers, the soldiers," we hurried to the depot 
where great train loads of them were passing. They 
were not allowed to leave the cars, the poor, half- 
starved, ragged fellows, were crowded together like 
cattle in open cars, beneath the canopy of heaven. 
"Water, water," they cried, and quickly crowds gath; 
ered bringing water and food, we filled as well as we 
could the eager hands stretched out to us. "Who are 
these soldiers?" and "Where do they go?" we asked, 
they bravely replied, "We are Longstreet's corps on 
our way to the front." It was all they knew, they 


"wildly cheered us "Goodbye, God bless you," as the 
train pulled out from the depot. As for us, we wept. 
For days these soldiers were passing, a vast uncon- 
quered army it seemed to us, the whole town turned 
out, we did all that we could to feed them, meeting 
every train with water and food. We soon knew 
where "the soldiers were going," as news of the great 
battle of Ohickamauga, fought in North Georgia and 
Tennessee, was flashed over the country. Longstreet's 
corps had taken part in the battle which was fought 
in September 1863. Again I must>say that this is not 
a history of the war, but a simple recital of personal 
and family memories. We were living in historic 
days, every hour seemed fraught with thrilling inter- 
est. Like my mother, I have lived to thank God for 
the freedom of the slaves, one great result of the war. 
Our home continued to be a center of social life 
with its bevy of bright young girls rushing into 
womanhood, and so many friends and relatives among 
the refugees coming and going around us. In the 
meantime I had assumed almost the entire care of 
sister Julia's children, assisted mother in every way I 
could with this young family. I became de- 
voted to them, the girls were my special charge, 
brother George directing the education of Edward, 
who had been sent away to school. In August 1864, 
Julia, the third daughter of sister Julia, died in Ma- 
con, with measles, aged three years and six months. 
She was a lovely child of remarkable beauty, a dear 
pet of mine and also of the entire household, her loss 
was a heartfelt grief to us, we felt indeed, that "death 
loved a shining mark." She was taken to Milledge- 
ville and laid beside her father and mother in the 
cemetery there. We had now no Julia in the family, 
and decided to change Dora's name to Julia Dora, but 
we could never call her Julia. I have felt for these 
children a love akin to a mother's love, which has 


been warmly returned, and has given to my life a 
great deal of happiness and joy. 

Even in war times love finds a way. My younger 
sister Sallie, was an attractive as well as a pretty 
girl, and overflowing with wit and humor, she was 
now twenty and considered herself old enough to 
enter the field of matrimony. When people fall in 
love marriage is next in order. We felt the sadness 
of having a wedding take place in the family while 
our soldier brothers were absent in the army, but to 
young people, the war seemed endless and war wed- 
dings had become the fashion of the day. Sarah Floyd 
Fort was married at Macon, Georgia, February 1, 1865, 
by the Reverend William Flinn of Milledgeville, to 
Dr. Harvey Oliver Milton of Selma, Alabama. Mr. 
Flinn was a Presbyterian Minister and had been our 
pastor at Milledgeville. Sallie met Dr. Milton in 
Macon, he was a gentleman of culture and refinement, 
was an assistant surgeon in the Confederate army, he 
had been in active service, was in the battle of 
Ohickamauga, but was now transferred to one of the 
hospitals in Macon. For this wedding all of the 
"before the war" finery in the family was brought out 
to adorn the bride. The description and struggle of 
getting up a trousseau and a war wedding I will give 
in Sallie's own bright words. The day after the wed- 
ding Dr. and Mrs. Milton left for a visit to Dr. Milton's 
brother at Selma, Alabama. The family circle was 
broken, a great void takes place when a young lady 
daughter leaves the home, I felt deeply the loss of 
my dear sister and companion. 


This was a sad disastrous winter for the South and 
fearful were the hardships endured by our devoted 
soldiers. We mourned the death of our great 
leader General Stonewall Jackson, with a sorrow 


universal, of grief that refused to be comforted. 
We were appalled at this loss, and that he was acci- 
dentally killed by his own soldiers, but added to the 
shock and horror of it. Clouds of adversity seemed to 
overwhelm us. Our decimated armies were retreating 
before the advancing hosts of the enemy which like the 
waves of the sea were sweeping over the Southland. 
Still we blindly clung to hope, "Lee was in the field," 
that was suflBcient, "all was well." The war songs 
"Dixie," "Maryland, My Maryland," "We Conquer or 
Die," "Bonny Blue Flag," and others, were sung with 
more fervor than ever. 

Suddenly came the news, that the Yankee General 
Wilson and his army were advancing on Macon. 
There was hurrying to and fro, hiding of valuables, 
and people still wildly refugeeing. And then more 
terrible rumors, "Lee had surrendered," "Richmond 
had fallen," peace was declared. This was soon fol- 
lowed by the startling news of the assassination of 
President Lincoln, on April 14th, 1865, by John Wilkes 
Booth, a wild, half crazy Southern fanatic. Certainly 
we were making fearful history, we could only hold 
our souls in peace and await the issue. We heard 
vaguely that General Howell Cobb, Confederate Gen- 
eral in command at Macon, by orders from the Gov- 
ernment at Washington, had gone out to meet General 
Wilson with a flag of truce. Dumb, paralyzed, doubt- 
ing as we were, we awoke with a shock to find that 
all was true. The war was over. Confederate money 
worthless, the slaves were free, and every hope and 
dream of Southern empire had vanished in a night. 

Our family consisted at this time of ten white 
members and eleven negro slaves, a typical Southern 
household. The negroes were at first dazed and in- 
toxicated with freedom, but long accustomed to obedi- 
ence, they were timid in demanding their rights, and 
on the whole, under the circumstances conducted them- 



selves remarkably well. When our coachman, Charlie, 
(who was an excellent servant), came to bid us good- 
bye, mother offered him two dollars, regretting she 
could give him no more. He refused to take it, saying 
"old Miss" (they always called my mother by that 
name) "you keep the money, you need it, I can work, 
you can't." These changes were very sad for us, and 
it was some time before we became accustomed to 
this new order of living. Unaccustomed to work 
many old people died, under the shock of their hard- 
ships and ruined fortunes. The half of this sad story 
can never be told. 

How little we had expected the war to end so soon. 
John had been sent from North Carolina to Georgia 
to recruit for his regiment, now decimated by the 
war. He arrived at home only three days before 
General Wilson and his army appeared before Macon, 
and immediately joined a company of Confederate 
officers, and went out to meet the enemy. They soon 
returned, disheartened and dispirited, by the news 
that was sweeping over the country. The surrender 
of the Confederate armies of Lee and Johnson, the 
flight of President Davis from Richmond and his 
capture by the Federals below Macon, all was 

The railroads were destroyed, John had walked 
the greater part of the way from North Carolina to 
Georgia ; carrying over his shoulders a heavy piece of 
Confederate gray cloth, he had bought in North Car- 
olina to make him a suit of clothes. The factories of 
the South ran night and day in those times, and could 
not supply the demand ; cloth was at a premium. 
There was now great demoralization in the South, and 
much stealing took place, especially among the negroes. 
We lost seven horses from our stable, and soon after 
Wilson arrived mother thought it best to apply for a 
guard to protect us. Colonel James Fannin, a cousin 

Taken about 1870. 


of mother's, while gallantly defending a fort at West 
Point, Georgia, was captured by Wilson and brought 
as a prisoner of war to Macon. Colonel Fannin was 
treated with great courtesy, was allowed his liberty, 
and was now staying at our house. He applied for a 
guard for us. A wounded Yankee Colonel and his 
staff were sent, one of the soldiers slept on the porch, 
while the Colonel occupied the sitting room. A Con- 
federate captain from Texas, and other poor homeless 
Southern soldiers were also at our house. Mother en- 
tertained all that she could. We said we had Yankee- 
dom on one side of the house, and the Confederacy 
no the other. Our home was the rendezvous for 
Confederate officers and refugeed friends, all now 
stranded at Macon without a dollar. At night 
especially we met, it was sad to hear the con- 
versations over our wrecked fortunes, our humili- 
ation, our dispair. Dinner was served the Yankee 
Colonel (he was a rough, common man), and his par- 
ty in the dining room first. We rebelled at this, but 
they treated us with all respect and mother thought 
it best to be as polite as possible to them, and she was 
right. Their rations were sent to the house, which 
mother had cooked, she presided at the table, none of 
the rest of the family were present. Seeing only 
knives at dinner, a fork was asked for. Mother said 
her forks were where they could not be found. An of- 
ficer remarked, "Madam, did you take us all for 
thieves?" "I only know," replied my mother, "that 
when Sherman's army passed through Madison, the 
only forks my sister saved were those hid in her 
pocket," no more was said, ours had been 
thrown into a well in the yard. The handsomest sil- 
ver which belonged to us, was given in trust to a faith- 
ful colored man named Wilkes Flagg who had form- 
erly been a slave of father's. Wilkes was a very su- 
perior man, he possessed fine executive and financial 


ability, had bought himself, wife and child, many 
years before freedom. He became a Baptist preach- 
er, his friendship and lifetime devotion to our family 
deserves special mention. Father and mother were 
his friends and assisted him in every way in their 
power in the difl&culties he sometimes encountered 
before the war as a free colored man. Our silver was 
taken to Milledgeville where he lived, and buried in 
his garden. When Sherman passed through Milledge- 
ville the Yankee soldiers hearing that Wilkes had 
valuables entrusted to him, siezed and were attempt- 
ing to hang him to force him to reveal where they 
were hidden, when an officer came up in time and 
saved his life. The silver was restored to us in safe- 
ty. Mother presented Wilkes with a handsome silver 
cup, (he would receive no pay), in token of his loy- 
alty and devotion to the family. A large box of sil- 
ver which belonged to the Huguenin children was 
sent to the Sumpter County plantation for safe keep- 
ing, and placed in charge of the overseer. Hearing 
that the Yankees were coming, he had it thrown into 
an old well where it remained until the war was over. 
We feared it was ruined, but it was recovered and re- 
stored uninjured. But I shall ne'er be done, my life 
was so absorbed in the war that every incident con- 
nected with it seems of special interest. 


We were extremely anxious at this time about 
Tomlinson, he had been left very ill with rheumatism 
at Raleigh, North Carolina, and was there when peace 
was declared. I wish to give something of the events 
of the last campaign of my two brothers, Tom and 
John, at the close of the war. Tom had entered heart 
and soul into the Southern cause, three times wounded 
and repeatedly sick, he served under great difficulties. 
Often with his health completely broken down, he 


persisted in returning to the army and had remained 
with his regiment until within a few weeks of the 
final surrender. The South had not a more devoted 
soldier. His regiment was stationed in the spring of 
1863, on the Apalachicola river, Hammock's Landing, 
Florida, a very unhealthy region, and Tom had been 
sent home with a severe attack of malaria which we 
feared at one time might prove fatal, but with youth 
and a good constitution he finally recovered. The 
Government had ordered that all sick soldiers must 
go to the hospital, Tom determined rather than be a 
"hospital rat" (as they were called), that he would 
return to the army if possible. Scarcely able to 
travel, he rejoined his regiment in Florida, where they 
were now stationed under the command of General 
Finnegan. They had recently participated in the 
brilliant battle and victory of Oclustee in Florida, 
John being in command of his company at the time. 
From Florida the regiment was ordered to Savannah, 
and spent that dreadful winter marching through the 
Carolinas in retreat before Sherman. Tom kept up 
with the regiment, although his health continued 
poor. He was slightly wounded on the shoulder in a 
battle on John's Island, South Carolina, came home 
on a furlough but soon returned. It was here that the 
regiment encountered for the first time in battle negro 
troops, which produced strange and mingled feelings, 
thus to meet our former slaves, a feeling of indigna- 
tion and humiliation that could only be known to a 
Southerner. The winter of 1864 and 1865 was very 
severe, our soldiers were without tents in the rain and 
snow, our hearts were filled with anguish at their 
sufferings and at the disasters to the army. The ex- 
hausted Confederacy was in her death agony. 

After the battle of Cheraw in South Carolina, Tom 
was first attacked with violent rheumatism. He has 
since been a great sufferer from this disease. John 


has given a graphic picture in his paper on "the last 
campaign of the First Georgia Regulars," of Tom's 
condition at this time, of his heroic struggle to avoid 
being captured and how he finally fell into the hands 
of those lovely Southern women in Raleigh, Mrs. 
Rayner and her daughters. Mrs. Rayner was a noble 
woman of a distinguished family, she was a sister of 
General, also Bishop Leonidas Polk, of the Confed- 
erate army, and was a relative of President Polk. 
Mr. George Lamar, a Georgia officer, was at this time 
in Raleigh, which was about to be evacuated by the 
Confederate army, and has told us since the war of 
this circumstance. He had a cousin very ill in the 
hospital there, seeing Tom another Georgian, lying 
near also very ill, he determined if possible to remove 
these two soldiers to a private house, feeling sure that 
if they were left in the hospital they would die. 
Placing them in an ambulance he went with them and 
finally stopped at a large and elegant home, a lady 
came out saying she could not possibly accommodate 
them, that her house was full, inducing her to look at 
them, her compassion was moved and under great 
difficulties she decided to take them. They were at 
first placed in a house in the yard, but soon some sick 
soldiers left the home, when they were moved into 
her house. So Tom fell into the hands of the Yankees 
after all. Raleigh was taken, it was here that John 
saw him just before he left for Georgia. Tom was 
three months ill at this hospitable home, he arrived 
there about March twentieth and left June twentieth, 
1865. He feels that he owes his life to the tender 
nursing of this noble woman and her daughters. He 
awoke as from a dream, to find that the Southern 
armies had all surrendered, the war was over and 
peace declared. He suffered deeply in the humilia- 
tion and defeat of the South, there was nothing to do 
but to join with the country in accepting the issue, 


start for home as soon as possible and begin life anew. 
John was to leave Macon in a few days to go to Ral- 
eigh in search of Tom, he expected to walk most of the 
way. The railroads were destroyed and with no 
mails, it was impossible to receive any news. Mother 
was consumed with anxiety when suddenly one day 
Tom came walking in. Our devoted mother and all 
of the family gave joyful welcome to this tall, pale 
soldier brother. He was dressed in a coat that had 
been given him by our cousin, Mrs. Janie Hoist of Sa- 
vannah, and a shirt that had been presented him by 
Aunt Ann Porter in Madison where he stopped. His 
only baggage, I believe, was a very shabby round- 
about gray jacket, which he was wearing when he 
reached Savannah. 

The Government had ordered the Confederate 
soldiers to remove all the gold braid and brass but- 
tons from their coats. Tom was among a large crowd 
of paroled Confederates when they reached Savannah 
by boat from Wilmington. On landing a negro sol- 
dier stepped up to one of the Confederate soldiers and 
began cutting the brass buttons from his coat, instantly 
the negro was shot dead. Amid great excitement and 
fears of a wholesale lynching all of the Confederates 
were arrested and brought before the Provost Mar- 
shal. One of them stepped to the front, saying, "Re- 
lease the prisoners, I am the man who did the killing." 
He was taken under strong guard and placed in jail. 
When morning dawned, that Confederate soldier had 
flown, no one could tell how, when, or where. Of 
course he had been freed by Confederate friends. Our 
Savannah relatives had taken off the brass buttons, 
and button mold buttons covered with black silk now 
adorned Tom's jacket, which I have in keeping among 
my souvenir's of the war. I have also his sword, 
this in some way was preserved and he brought it 
home with him. I will relate an incident that he 


remembers of the battle of Cheraw, in North Caroli- 
na, he was in command of his regiment, with the 
Yankees in hot pursuit of them. As they rushed 
down the streets of Oheraw seeking the best route to 
cross a bridge over the Great Pedee river there, a 
woman came out on a porch wildly waving a sun bon- 
net at them, they turned at the signal and soon cross- 
ed the bridge in safety. It was already on fire, they 
almost ran over a few Yankee soldiers, who at great 
risk were trying to put it out, brave fellows they were 
Tom said. In 1896, he visited the Cheraw battle- 
field, and sought the street and house where the bon- 
net was waived. He was directed to call on Mrs. E. 
M. Vareen, President of the "Ladies' Memorial Soci- 
ety." She said to him, "Well, I think I am the lady 
you seek, as I waived the sun bonnet." She was now 
an old lady, and it seemed indeed strange after thirty 
years thus to meet her again. 

We were proud of the record of our patriot soldier 
brothers, all of them had been equally faithful and 
devoted to duty. We felt that we had indeed cause 
for gratitude to God that they had been spared to us 
through the war while the whole Southland were 
mourning for their dead. The struggle had been gi- 
gantic and will go down to history as one of the great- 
est wars of modern times, illustrating the character 
and heroism of the American people. Although de- 
feated, the South by her endurance, courage, and pa- 
triotism has won immortal renown. 

By the freeing of the slaves, the depreciation of 
the property of the country and values of all kinds, 
poverty seemed staring us in the face. Wise heads 
were in charge of our affairs, with an abundance of 
food-and but little money we managed to get on well. 
Trading by barter was carried on for some time, the 
country gradually returned to law and order. Our 
household negroes all left us, we could not blame 


them, freedom was sweet. Even our faithful nurse, 
"Aunt Nancy," went with her family, her children 
were very ordinary, she felt it her duty to take care 
of them. At the division of father's estate, we gave 
Nancy an acre of ground in Milledgeville, and had 
moved on it, as a home for her, a good house with two 
rooms, which had been father's office, and here she 
lived and died. She was a prominent member of the 
family, coming to us in cases of sickness, a gentle 
nurse, was faithful and devoted to us during a long 
life, her memory lingers lovingly with us. Tomlinson 
and Fannie attended her funeral, I was unable to go 
at the time. She died and was buried in Milledge- 
ville in 1887. After the war we sold the Milledge- 
ville home to the Methodist Church for a parsonage 
and decided to locate permanently in Macon. 

Tom was admitted to the bar in Milledgeville in 
August 1858. Father's estate owned valuable real 
estate in Chattanooga and a plantation near the city. 
Mother desired Tom to go there and look after this 
property. At a sale of government stock in Macon 
he bought a wagon and a pair of mules that were to  
be sent to this plantation in Tennessee, the railroads 
were so destroyed that he decided to travel through 
the country in this wagon. Two white men accompa- 
nied him, they were a week or more on the trip, ar- 
riving in Chattanooga in the fall of 1865. Tom after- 
wards decided to locate permanently there, the great- 
er part of his life has been spent in Chattanooga. 
Tomlinson (mother always gave him his full name) 
is a gentleman in every sense of the word, is a 
man of talent, of great energy and the strictest in- 
tegrity, is devoted to his profession and has become a 
prominent member of the bar. He is a public spirited 
citizen, has always been active in the upbuilding of 
Chattanooga. He was elected Mayor of Chattanooga 
in 1875 and served until 1876, was a member of 


the Board of Public Works for six years, from 1893 to 
1899, and was chairman of the Board for four years. 
He has given much time to the interests of the family in 
the management of the Chattanooga property, how 
faithfully he has discharged this duty all who know 
him will bear witness. He is tall like our father, is 
six feet two inches high, with light hair and blue 
eyes, has pleasing manners, is always polite, 
never forgetting in our home life to rise and offer me 
the best chair in the room. He is devoted to children, 
they soon learn to know and love him. The Rayner 
family, who had been wealthy and had shown him 
such kindness during the war, were now ruined finan- 
cially. He gladly availed himself of an opportuni- 
ty offered him of aiding them temporarily, they were 
too proud to receive any thing except as a loan. 
Gratitude is one of Tom's strongest characteristics. 


Mother with intelligence and energy accepted the 
new order of things in the country. Consulting with 
brother George they went to work to arrange our 
affairs to create an income for the support of the 
family. The household was reorganized according to 
our changed fortunes, the servants were reduced from 
nine to three, we had now only a cook, house-maid 
and a nurse. The carriage horses were given up, a 
gardener was employed most of the time, gardening 
was a passion and a useful one with mother. 

Since father's death our dear brother George had 
been to us as a father. He was mother's right hand, 
such a devoted son I have never seen. He was a man 
of fine business judgment and left to mother a valua- 
ble estate for her lifetime, at her death to be divided 
among his brothers and sisters. His health had 
rapidly failed for the past few years, the disease was 
a form of chronic dyspepsia. He died on May 4, 1866, 


at Macon and was buried in the cemetery at Milledge- 
ville. I have spoken of his superior character and 
talents, and of mother's devotion to him, she could 
never speak of him without tears. 

Brother John studied law under our neighbor and 
friend, Ool. L. N. Whittle, and was admitted to the bar 
in Macon in 1866. It now devolved upon him to come 
forward and take brother George's place in the 
family, which he did with credit to himself. He 
became administrator of the Huguenin estate which 
he ably managed, paying off a large debt upon the 
estate, was a successful planter and also assisted 
mother in the management of her business. John 
was ever a kind, affectionate son and brother, all of 
the family were devoted to him. 

Edward and the girls were still at school, the girls 
rapidly growing into young ladies. Martha the eldest, 
had developed into a remarkably beautiful and facin- 
ating girl, she was of a brilliant brunette type, with 
dark hair and eyes, and was for years the acknowl- 
edged beauty and belle of Macon. Fannie was our 
scholar, a talented girl, Lila the youngest, handsome 
and dignified, Edward now a college boy at 
Athens, Georgia, and Dora at this time a child about 
ten years old. Imagine this gay and merry house- 
hold, three grown young ladies and all interesting and 
attractive girls. Our house became a fair Mecca for 
the beaux, every night was like an entertainment and 
on Sunday afternoons they held a reception. It was 
directly after the war, the soldier boys were eager to 
become acquainted with the girls. I was very proud 
of "my girls," as I called them, and entered into the 
spirit of their young lives, I bought and assisted in 
making their dresses and chaperoned them into our 
social world. I recall those bright summers at the 
Georgia Springs with "my girls," and at Milledgeville^ 
with my pretty niece Martha, capturing the legis- 


lators ; or on a picnic floating down the classic waters 
of the Ocmulgee in the moonlight; days of youthful 
pleasure never to be forgotten. This was to me a 
work of absorbing interest and love, the dear girls 
rewarding me with their confidence and affection. 

Our old bachelor, "uncle Joe" as every one termed 
him, was a striking figure in the family circle all these 
years, his eccentricities and never failing fund of 
wit and humor were a constant source of entertain- 
ment. He was a man of intelligence, had been 
admitted to the bar but never practiced, all of his 
life he seemed to dislike the routine of business, 
he possessed an ample fortune but had lost 
everything by the war. Brother George to whom he 
was devoted, left him an annuity, and mother now 
took care of him. His wit was keen and brilliant, 
the girls and their beaux coming in as one of his chief 
targets. On one occasion hearing gay voices in the 
parlor in the twilight, he opened the door, (not seeing 
that there were several gentlemen present), exclaimed 
"well girls, poor luck to-night, a regular water haul," 
retreating at the laugh which followed. Or when 
there had been some very young boys visiting them, 
he would say "girls I advise you to throw those min- 
nows back in the river to grow," as you will see he 
was fond of fishing. He was an ardent partisan in 
politics, with never a desire for oflSce, a democrat, 
"dyed in the wool." He was a gentleman of truth 
and honor and like many brilliant talj^ers was over 
fond of the social glass, mother had great influence 
over him and generally managed to keep him in pretty 
good order. They were now companions in their 
declining years, and partners in almost daily battles 
at their favorite game of chess, both of them being 
fine players. 

In these great changes brought about by the 
war, there was always enough and to spare at our 


house, and as far as possible mother extended a broad 
charity to all in need of assistance. I took charge of 
the sewing, taught the girls how to sew and also gave 
them music lessons for a while after the war. After 
leaving school sewing was a part of the education of 
the Southern girls, they made their own underwear 
and dresses, ready made clothes for ladies were un- 
known at this time. Lila resembled her mother, she 
developed a great talent for sewing, and soon excelled 
her teacher. Music was an accomplishment thought 
necessary for all girls in good society, and much time 
was given to it. Fannie was a superior musician, ex- 
celling on the piano, while Martha, who had a full 
rich voice, was the best singer among the girls. 

And now began the marrying and giving in 
marriage. Lila was the first of the girls to break our 
charmed circle, she was the youngest, just eighteen, 
and the intended bridegroom only twenty-three. Mr. 
Tarver was a steady and clever young man, was of a 
prominent and wealthy Georgia family, this was a mar- 
riage of youth, love and prosperity. Eliza Villard 
Huguenin was married at Macon, Georgia, to Ben- 
jamin Marcus Tarver May 19th, 1869, by the Rev. Hen- 
ry Bunn, a Baptist minister and grand-father of the 
bridegroom. We gave them a brilliant wedding, with 
a band of music and dancing, and had the house 
beautifully decorated. The supper table was gorgeous 
with the family cut glass and silver which had been 
all saved from the Yankees and was now used for the 
first time since the war. I have rarely seen as hand- 
some cut glass, silver and jewelry as these Huguenin 
children inherited, their father was very fond of 
such things and had generously indulged his excellent 
taste in beautiful gifts to his family. The young 
couple left soon after the wedding ceremony for a 
Northern tour. Lila made a handsome bride in a 
dress of plain white silk with long tulle vail, she 


received many handsome presents. What excitement 
there was in the family over this first marriage among 
these girls and how busy we had been with the simple 
trousseau. Our means were limited but we did for 
her the best we could at the time. The family circle 
seemed broken with the loss of this dear girl, but 
changes however great, soon readjust themselves and 
our lives moved on as usual. 

For many years Judge Morgan, sister Martha and 
their two children Mary Lou and John, spent a part 
of every summer with us in Macon. Judge Morgan 
was a very pleasant man in the family, we were all 
fond of him. Mother had been an accomplished 
musician in her youth and sang beautifully, she 
taught her daughters music which was a great source 
of pleasure to us. Sister Martha was the most 
superior musician in the family, she composed bril- 
liantly, I have rarely heard her excelled as a per- 
former on both the piano and the guitar. Brother 
George had given me a beautiful guitar, it was a 
favorite instrument of mother's. We sat on the tall 
colonnade those summer nights, I with the guitar 
leading, and all of the dear girls joining in singing 
the old songs our mother loved. Sometimes we went 
serenading the neighbors in the moonlight. Halceyon 
days were these, sweet memories cluster around them. 

Our house continued attractive for the young 
people, Martha and Fannie with their friends making 
life bright around us, the end was near, sooner than 
we expected. Martha rather suddenly decided to 
marry Captain Joseph Marshall Johnston of New 
York, a gentleman who had been paying her attention 
for some time. He was a native Tennesseean of ex- 
cellent family, a superior man in every respect, and a 
banker by profession. He was in the commissary de- 
partment of the Confederate army as captain during 
the Civil War, was first in Longstreet's corps, after- 


wards transferred to Mississippi, where he served under 
General Forrest until the close of the war. Martha was 
a favorite in the family, although so admired she was 
not at all vain, but was a very modest and timid woman, 
a faculty always pleasing and attractive in a young 
girl. She would not listen to anything except a sim- 
ple day wedding, we had to yield to her wishes. She 
was married in a handsome traveling dress of silver 
grey poplin, the bride and groom leaving immediate- 
ly for a trip North. The bride-groom was urgent, in- 
sisting that the marriage take place at once, which 
gave us only about five weeks in which to make ready 
the not very elaborate trousseau. It was in the lovely 
month of June, we decorated the house beautifully 
with natural flowers, a few intimate friends with the 
relatives were bidden to this pretty morning wedding. 
Martha Fannin Huguenin was married June 11th, 
1871, at Macon, Georgia, to Joseph Marshall Johnston, 
of New York, by the Rev. Benjamin Johnson, of the 
Episcopal Church. This was another sad loss from 
the family circle. Weddings were in the air around 
us, in less than six months sister Fannie was married. 
She had become engaged before Martha's marriage to 
Julius Brown, of Atlanta, Georgia, and the day was 
set for November 8th. We thought that the two girls 
might arrange for a double wedding, but there was no 
such word as wait with Captain Johnston. What a 
busy time was this, two weddings and two trousseaux 
in six months. We sent for Nancy, our old nurse and 
seamstress, to assist us, it was absorbing and interest- 
ing work, no idle bread was ours that summer. Fran- 
ces Gilmer Fort was married at Macon, Georgia, No- 
vember 8th, 1871, to Julius Lewis Brown, of Atlanta, 
Georgia, by the Rev. Benjamin Johnson, of the Epis- 
copal Church. Mr. Brown was a young man of supe- 
rior talents, he was the son of ex-Governor Joseph E. 
Brown of Georgia, and was a lawyer by profession. 


Our families had been friends for years. We lived 
near the executive mansion in Milledgeville, during 
Governor Brown's administration and Fannie and 
Julius had been sweethearts almost from childhood. 
Their marriage gave universal pleasure to both fam- 
ilies. Our friends assisted in decorating the house in 
old-fashioned style for the wedding, green wreathes 
withpaper and natural flowers were used with charm- 
ing effect. The finances of the family had improved by 
this time, and the trousseau was quite handsome. 
The bride looked lovely in her wedding dress of white 
silk trimmed in tulle and lace, which had been sent 
out from New York. The table was exquisitely deco- 
rated by Mrs. Thweatt an artist friend from Milledge- 
ville, beautiful cakes were ornamented with 
raised icing and silver and gold leaf, an art almost 
unknown now. There was a large and brilliant wed- 
ding, Martha Johnston came from New York, our 
beautiful cousin Martha Wade from Madison, and 
Governor and Mrs. Brown, their son Frank and 
daughter Mary from Atlanta. The bridesmaids were 
Martha Wade, Mary Brown, Amelia Dessau and 
Ellen Holt. The bride and groom left the next day 
for a Northern tour. Changed indeed now, was this 
once merry household, bereft of all of our young 
girls, we seemed to enter upon a new order of life. 


January the 8th was mother's birthday and the 
date of General Jackson's famous victory at New 
Orleans in 1815. It was ushered in, as were all 
national holidays in old Milledgeville, by the piercing 
notes of the fife and drum as they were marched 
through the streets at the dawn' of day, always fol- 
lowed by a crowd of small boys. I can still see old 
Stirling, the tall colored drummer proudly beating 
his immense bass drum, such drums are not used now. 

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While walking at his side was little Hammerheels, 
(as he was called), a small colored fifer blowing the 
fife with all his might, and very stirring music they 
made. This was a noted day in our family, all of the 
children, grand-children and great-grand-children that 
could attend, came home every year at this time to 
honor mother's birthday. Tomlinson now made his 
annual visit home, Martha Johnston came with little 
Richard Wilson Johnston, Fannie with young Martha 
Fort Brown and Sallie with George Fort Milton. 
Happiness and pleasure reigned at these family re- 
unions. We always decorated the house and on one 
occasion had seventy-five lighted tapers (which was 
mother's age), on a tall stand on the dinner table. It 
was a goodly sight to see us assembled around that 
festive board, children and grand-children all present. 
Mother presided with charming grace and dignity, 
with what happiness she beamed upon us as we 
touched our glasses with toasts in her honor and some- 
times read original poems, Uncle Joe always had 
something good to say for "sister," whom he revered. 
She objected to our making her presents, so we gave 
it up, she preferred to give rather than to receive. 
On one occasion a black silk dress was given her made 
to order, I well remember how handsome she appeared 
in it at the dinner table. She was so fond of 
giving we turned our gifts into a fund for her to give 
away in charity. Unknown to her we arranged a box 
on the parlor table with a card attached "to our 
mother to be given by her in charity, from her chil- 
dren, grand-children and great-grand-children" all 
contributing. She wept as she read it, how I linger 
over these sweet memories. 

Edward Huguenin, sister Julia's only son, was 
educated at the State University at Athens, Georgia, 
he had developed into a steady clever young man of 
fine business qualities. When the Federal General 


Wilson was advancing on Macon, Edward, then a boy 
of fifteen, joined a company of boys and furloughed 
soldiers, and went forth to meet the invaders of his 
country. These young soldiers only served a few 
days as peace soon followed, yet it was an evidence 
of their patriotism. After completing his education 
Edward decided to enter the cotton warehouse busi- 
ness in Macon and was very successful. On October 
23, 1874, he married Miss Mary E. Randell, a beautiful 
and charming girl of Albany, Georgia, coming to live 
in Macon. 

Sister Martha Morgan's two children lived with 
us two years in Macon, in order to take advantage of 
the fine schools there. Mary Lou attended Weslyan 
Female College and John went to Mercer University. 
Mother's home was open to her children and grand- 
children as long as she lived, until I was older I never 
realized how arduous had been the duties in the life 
work of our mother. 

The valuable property belonging to father's estate 
in Milledgeville had been well managed by mother, 
she was ably assisted by Mr. Pleasant M. Compton of 
Milledgeville, a superior and successful man and life- 
time friend of the family. He said of mother that she 
was the finest business woman he had ever known. 
With the Chattanooga and Milledgeville property we 
were able to live generously and well. 

Mrs. Lizzie Ingram Humber, who had lived with 
us so long and married in our home in Milledgeville 
came to visit us in Macon, she induced mother to take 
charge of her two daughters to attend the Wesleyan 
Female College at Macon with Dora. Mr. Humber 
was now a prosperous planter, they lived near Mill- 
edgeville and had an interesting family of children. 
The Humber girls were bright and attractive, I took 
almost entire charge of them, buying and arranging 
their wardrobes the same as for Dora, they were about 


her age. Dora was now my special pet, with lovely 
Emily and witty Mary, I had again in charge three 
interesting girls to keep me busy. I was "Aunt Kate" 
to all and became very fond of them, Emily was with 
us four years and Mary three, they have ever been 
our lifetime friends. Emily married Dr. Joseph H. 
White, who is now a distinguished surgeon in the U. 
S. Navy, Mary is unmarried 1903. 

On one of Fannie's visits to us in Macon she lost 
her second child, Elizabeth, after a severe and sudden 
illness of three days. She was a lovely child of thir- 
teen months, too lovely for earth, she was removed to 
Heaven to be reared by the angels of God. Julius 
Brown and his mother, dear Mrs. Brown, came from 
Atlanta to be with us. A severe blow to the parents 
was this, their first great sorrow and sad indeed was 
the return home, the little one was laid in the ceme- 
tery at Atlanta. Elizabeth Grisham Brown died at 
Macon, Georgia, June 7th, 1877. 

We had almost given over brother John to old 
bachelordom, we felt that he quite belonged to us and 
were loath to part with him, Cupid had only tarried, 
John's time came at last. He met in Atlanta, Georgia, 
Miss Lulah Hay Ellis, by chance it seemed, and yet 
we know that nothing happens by chance. Miss Ellis 
was a handsome and attractive young woman and 
with brother John to see her was to love her, again 
and yet again they met and love won the day. She 
lived with her brother, Mr. W. B. Ellis, a prominent 
lawyer of Atlanta. Here they were married, John 
Porter Fort to Tallulah Hay Ellis October 28th, 1881, 
by the Rev. William F. Cooke of the Methodist 
Church. It was a pretty home wedding, the bride 
was very handsome in her wedding dress of white 
silk, and the groom was always the handsomest mem- 
ber of the Fort family. Mother was in feeble health 
at this time, but had come from Macon to be present 

100 me:moirs of the fort and fanxin families 

at the marriage of dear John. After the ceremony- 
John and Luhih made a pretty picture as they knelt 
at mother's feet for her blessing. Many relatives and 
friends were among the wedding guests, but no one 
felt more important than our old black nurse Aunt 
Nancy, who had accompanied mother as a maid to see 
"Mars John" married. Numerous and handsome were 
the wedding gifts and none were more appreciated 
than a red woolen comfort made and presented by 
"aunt Nancy", (mother supplying the materials). 
After the ceremony the bride and groom left for a 
Northern tour. 

Two children were born to Dr. Milton and sister 
Sallie. Tomlinion Fort, born at Macon, Georgia, No- 
vember 29, 1865, George Fort, born at Macon, ,luly 16, 
1869. Dr. Milton and Sallie lived in Villula, Alabama 
for about a year, where Tomlinson their young son died, 
and is buried, he was a bright interesting boy nine 
months old, he died September 14, 1866. They after- 
wards bought a farm five miles from Macon, Georgia, 
where they lived for several years. In 1879 by the 
advice of mother they decided to sell their home near 
Macon and move to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where 
they could manage the property they owned there, to 
much better advantage. This proved to be a wise 
move and added greatly to their prosperity and hap- 
piness. Their family consisted of Dr. Milton, Sallie, 
their son George and Mrs. Sarah Ellert Milton, the 
mother of Dr. Milton. Mrs. Milton was an old lady 
in feeble health, she died shortly after they arrived in 
Chattanooga, aged seventy-five years. She was a de- 
voted member of the Baptist Church, kind and good, 
she is buried in the Citizens Cemetery at Chattanooga. 

Our dear mother's health had been failing for some 
time, housekeeping duties had become too onerous for 
her and she determined to give it up into the hands 
of some of the younger members of the family. Cap- 


tain Johnston intended to make Macon his home and 
wished to come there for the winter. Our house was 
large, Martha desired to live with us, and decided to 
take the home and keep house for the family. She 
came with little Richard, young baby Martha and a 
faithful Irish girl Maggie Oorkery by name as 
nurse, Maggie became prominent and very popular in 
the family, her warm heart making friends with every 
one, she lived with Martha over twenty years until 
she married. Richard was a noble little boy, he be- 
came a great pet with mother. We formed a large 
and pleasant household, Martha proving to be a 
famous manager and house-keeper. 

Dora had grown into a handsome, graceful young 
woman, which fact the young men soon discovered and 
another wedding was dawning upon us. The right 
man had appeared and been accepted, in the person 
of Mr. John R. Ellis of Macon. There was little 
thought for weddings with us now, we were consumed 
with anxiety, regarding the alarming condition of 
mother's health at this time. Sister Martha Morgan 
had been sent for from Memphis and was with us, but 
she was suddenly called to Saint Louis by the danger- 
ous illness there of her son John. Sallie Milton, Tom- 
linson and Fannie were also there and our faithful old 
nurse. Aunt Nancy, to assist us. After a lingering 
illness of several months our dear mother died at Ma- 
con, June 14, 1883, in the eightieth year of her age. 
With the exception of sister Martha every member of 
the family were present, when her beautiful spirit 
passed into eternity. A number of friends joined us 
in the sad journey to Milledgeville, where we laid her 
in the cemetery beside those dear ones she had so loved 
in life. The funeral was large, it took place at the 
Methodist church in Milledgeville and was preached 
by Rev. Dr. Joseph Key of the Methodist church, her 
pastor at Macon, it was a noble eulogy on our mother. 


Dr. Key was assisted in the services by the Rev. Mr. 
Bigham of the Methodist church of Milledgeville, an 
old friend of the family. 

Mother and father sympathized in their broad and 
liberal views on the subject of religion, father having 
always taught us to examine all questions before fin- 
ally deciding to accept them. Several years before 
mother's death she decided to join the Mulberry 
Street Methodist church at Macon and was baptized 
at home by the pastor the Rev. Mr. Branch. This was 
a great comfort to her, all of her sisters were members 
of this church and she had long desired to join it, but 
from a natural timidity had hesitated to connect her- 
self with any of the churches. I feel myself unequal to 
the task of speaking of our dear mother, her long and 
useful life is her eulogy and her epitaph. Gifted in 
person, mind and manners, generous, hospitable, 
charitable, devoted wife, tender, loving mother, her 
children arise and call her blessed, faithfully and 
well has she fulfilled her life's work. One of her con- 
stant maxims to us was "continue to love each other 
as long as your lives shall last." I consider it a bless- 
ing to have had such parents as were ours, may we so 
live as to meet them in that glorious eternity where 
partings are no more. 

And now came the sad ordeal of the breaking up 
of the home where we had lived twenty years. Dora 
was twenty years old and was soon to be married to 
Mr. John R. Ellis of Macon. Mr. Ellis resided in 
Macon and was engaged in the dry goods business, he 
was an exemplary young man, steady and energetic. 
The marriage which had been delayed on account of 
mother's death, was arranged to take place be- 
fore we left the home and as soon as possible. Julia 
Theodora Huguenin and John Richard Ellis were 
married at Macon, Georgia, August 21, 1883, by the 
Rev. Joseph S. Key of the Methodist church. This 


was the seventh wedding that had occurred in our 
family in the twenty years we had lived in Macon. 
On account of our recent bereavement it was a quiet, 
sad wedding, only a few friends and relatives were 
present. The bride was married in a traveling dress, 
the young couple leaving soon after the ceremony for 
a tour North. I was very fond of Dora and felt in 
losing her that I was desolate indeed, left alone in the 

Mother's will had restored the house and furniture 
in Macon to the Huguenin children, her personal 
property with the silver, china and glass were given to 
me. After Dora's marriage the family scattered, 
Captain Johnston and family went North for the sum- 
mer, leaving only Uncle Joe and myself at the home 
of all that large household. It was my duty to pack 
up and arrange everything preparatory to move. The 
furniture was sold and divided among the Huguenin 
children. It was a sad change for Uncle Joe and my- 
self, he had been almost broken hearted at the loss of 
our mother, he went to live with brother John and his 
excellent wife. My dear family had been most kind, 
many homes were offered to me. My health had de- 
clined under all these trials and sister Martha, to 
whom I was devoted, urged me to spend the winter in 
Memphis with her, I decided to do so. In September 
I left for Memphis, bidding home and friends farewell. 

The family annals are over, the leading characters 
have passed from the stage, the curtain falls, what 
more have I to tell? I feel that this record is un- 
finished without some further mention of the decend- 
ants of these honored ancestors?, their children, grand- 
children and great grand-children. 


I am now sixty-five years of age, which would be 
called a good old age by the young, although we can- 


not feel ourselves old, age seems to recede from us as 
we advance towards it. I have seen great changes in 
the world in my time and marvelous discoveries have 
taken place. The wonders in electricity, the powers 
of sound, the vast reservoirs of coal, gas and oil hidden 
beneath the earth, have been brought forth for the use 
of man, and the advance that has been made in the 
education of the masses. All of these remarkable 
events and discoveries have revolutionized our order 
of living, they are so startling it seems indeed as 
if the spiritual world was drawing nearer to the earth. 
Great movements are slow to develop in the human 
mind, we must be prepared before we can receive. I 
believe that all of this new light, that is descending 
upon the world is from God, it is given to man as 
rapidly as he is capable of receiving it. But none of 
the new issues have interested me more than the 
position that woman is taking in the world. How 
interested our mother was in all questions relating to 
the public good, especially in this, the "woman ques- 
tion" as it is termed. She believed that woman should 
be placed, legally, morally and intellectually on the 
same plane as man, she would have rejoiced to see this 
day, in the dawn of the twentieth century when woman 
is slowly and steadily rising to the position that God 
intended her to fill in life, to be the companion and 
equal of man. God speed the day. 

Tomlinson and myself having never married, were 
the old bachelor and old maid of the family, we had 
always felt that we would make our home together in 
the future. Tom has spent the greater part of his 
life in Chattanooga, and has given much time and 
energy to the interest of the Fort estate there. Sev- 
eral members of the family were in Chattanooga in 
the fall of 1883, when the principal part of our 
property there was divided among the heirs, 
it was said to have sold at a high valuation. My 


health continued so uncertain that I did not move to 
Chattanooga until the fall of 1885, at which time Tom 
and m3'^self began housekeeping, an experience which 
we have greatly enjoyed for nearly twenty years, our 
home has been headquarters for the family meetings. 
We have tried to carry out our mother's constant 
advice tons, "continue to love each other as long 
as your lives shall last." An important epoch in 
my life to me has been a three months tour in Europe 
with a charming party in 1890. This was a dream of 
artistic beauty, delight and charming memory which 
ever lingers with me. 

In coming to Chattanooga I had anticipated the 
great pleasure of being a great deal with my dear 
sisters, Martha Morgan and Sallie Milton, sister 
Martha lived in Memphis and Sallie in Chattanooga. 
Alas ! for human hopes. In the winter of 1886, sister 
Martha who had been in poor health for some years, 
was seized with a fatal illness which resulted in her 
death, in Memphis February 23d, 1886. She was laid 
beside her infant son, Tomlinson Fort, they are in- 
terred in Memphis. This was a sad blow to us, she 
had almost taken mother's place in my life. I have 
mentioned her superior talents, she was a great and 
good woman, with loving charity towards all the 
world. After her marriage in order to be with her 
husband she joined the Methodist church, although 
she told the minister that from girlhood she had been 
a believer in the doctrine of religion as taught by 
Emanuel Sweedenborg, she died in that faith. I was 
in entire sympathy with her in these religious views, 
as were also several of my relatives in the Fort 
family. Sister Martha and myself always felt that it 
was a blessing from God that we were permitted to 
receive these truths which we believed in God's own 
time, will gradually dawn upon the world. She left 
two children, Mrs. Mary Lou Witt of Chicago, Ills., 


and John Ellington Morgan of Memphis. Mary Lou's 
second marriage was a happy one, Mr. Witt is a clever 
man, she died in Chicago, Ills., August 16th, 1902, she 
is buried in Henderson, Kentucky, the old home of 
her husband. Judge Morgan married the third time 
in 1889, Mrs. Josephine Sykes of Aberdeen, Missis- 
sippi. He died at Aberdeen in 1899, and was interred 
in Memphis, Tennessee. John Morgan is the last of 
his family, he is a clever man, he is drifting into a 
genial old bachelor, is unmarried, 1902. 

Mother left in her will a legacy to Uncle Joe, saying 
that he should not be dependent upon any of her 
children for a support, she always maintained that a 
life of dependence was degrading. Uncle Joe felt her 
loss deeply, after her death he never seemed to take 
much interest in life, was always a man of feeble organ- 
ization, and as he grew older he became very infirm. He 
was tenderly cared for by brother John and his lovely 
wife, at their homeCoolweewahee, Dougherty County, 
Georgia, where he died May 18th, 1886. We took him 
to Milledgeville and laid him beside the "dear sister" 
he had loved so well. I have mentioned his intelli- 
gence and unique character and his devotion to our 
family interests, the memory of his bright personality 
will ever stand vividly before us in the family circle. 
I append a sketch written of him by my sister, Mrs. 
Julius Brown. 

In August 1899, mother's sister, Mrs. Minerva 
Elizabeth Johnson, died at her home in Talladega, 
Alabama, aged eighty-seven years, she was the last 
living member of mother's family. She was buried at 
her old home. Cave Springs, Georgia, brother Tomlin- 
son and myself attended the funeral. Aunt Minerva 
combined fine business qualities with rare gentleness 
and loveliness of character, making her beloved 
wherever known. She was an invalid for many years, 
but retained her faculties to the last, her children 


have made superior men and women. Her eldest son, 
the late Dr. Joseph Johnson, was for many years 
principal of the Deaf and Dumb Institution of Ala- 
bama and also of the institution for the blind, both of 
which are located at Talladega, Alabama. 

Julius Brown and sister Fannie have made their 
home in Atlanta, two children have been born to 
them, Martha Fort and Elizabeth Grisham, Elizabeth 
died in infancy. Julius Brown is a man of superior 
talents, he is a public spirited citizen, was chairman 
of the Walker Monument Association, which has 
recently erected in Atlanta 1902, a monument to Gen- 
eral W. H. T. Walker of Georgia, a distinguished 
Confederate General. Mr. Brown has risen to emi- 
nence in Masonry, is a Past Grand Commander of the 
Knights Templar of Georgia. With fine taste he has 
collected at his home a valuable museum of anti-^ 
quarian art and literature, and is said to own the finest 
private library in the South. He was sole counsel for 
the Western and Atlantic Railroad of Georgia from 
1871 to 1891. He entered the Civil War as a cadet 
from the Georgia Military Institute of Marietta, Geor- 
gia. The cadets were ordered into service in 1864, 
and served until the close of the war, he was but six- 
teen years of age at this time. These boys did valiant 
service in the army, several of them werekilledin battle. 

Fannie is a brilliant woman, gifted both in head 
and heart, she has been almost a daughter to me. 
Martha Fort Brown, her talented daughter, is a com- 
panion worthy of her mother, if she so desires I be- 
lieve that she could become distinguished in the lit- 
erary world. Martha is unmarried, 1902. 

Friends will smile at these memoirs "what still 
eulogizing?" '' Yes, if I am to write this book." That 
the majority of my family are worthy decendants of 
their noble sires is but true, smile as ye may, I fear 
that these laudations will continue. 


I have mentioned John as a man of fine character 
and talents, and his patriotism as a soldier during the 
Civil War. While the Forts have never boasted as to 
their good looks, brother John could certainly be 
called a handsome man. He w^as the only brunette in 
the family, father said he resembled grand-mother 
Fort, who had dark hair and eyes. When John was a 
child the children called him "Black Jack," until the 
poor child actually thought he was black. Coming 
one day to mother he held up the palm of his hand 
and said ''mother I am turning white." Like our 
father he loves the birds, the woods, the fields, is a 
naturalist and a scientist. The love of nature draws 
us near to God, it is said that those who have this 
temperament are rarely, if ever wicked people. Cir- 
cumstances often shape our lives better than we can 
plan them, it has seemed to be so with John. After 
taking charge of the Huguenin estate he gave up the 
practice of law and determined to become a planter. 
He decided to go into partnership with Captain J. 
Marshall Johnston, (Martha's husband), they bought 
large cotton plantations in South-west Georgia, where 
John spent the winters with his family. John was 
the first to demonstrate the possibility of artesian 
wells in Georgia, he was assisted in this great enter- 
prise by Captain Johnston. They decided to make 
the experiment of boring for artesian wells at Hickory 
Level (one of their plantations), in Dougherty County, 
Georgia. Success crowned their efforts, the well was 
five hundred and fifty feet deep, the clear and beauti- 
ful water rising like a blessing, fifteen or twenty feet 
above the surface of the earth, the water proved to 
be a pure sulphur water, its discovery has indeed been 
a blessing and has added greatly to the health of that 
region of the State. Artesian wells now abound in 
Southern Georgia, the people welcomed with great 
joy this benefaction to the country. John has a sum- 


mer home at Mount Airy in North-east Georgia, where 
he has established extensive orchards and vineyards 
and entered largely into the cultivation of fruit. 
Like our father he excels as a delightful story teller, 
to see him surrounded by his children recalls our 
childhood's life in Milledgeville. Assisted by his ad- 
mirable wife, the domestic relations of their house- 
hold have been beautiful. They have six interesting 
children, namely, Susan Ellis, Kate Haynes, Martha 
Fannin, Tomlinson, John Porter and William Ellis. 
I do not know a better man than brother John. 

As a man and citizen I can truly say that no one 
stands higher in Chattanooga than brother Tomlinson. 
He has won the reward of an upright honorable life in 
the respect and esteem of the people among whom he 
has lived so long. Tom and myself are now the eldest 
living members of the family, we call our house 
''Liberty Hall" and make our home together. We 
have both passed the sixty mile stage, and are travel- 
ing down the hill, or rather to me, it is up the hill of 
life towards glorious eternity, a thought which I love 
to dwell upon. Tomlinson is a true Fort in general 
characteristics, he is a lover of nature and a good 
man, calls himself an agnostic. He is a receiver of 
natural truth here as he sees it, and I believe that 
light will be given him to receive spiritual truth in 
eternity. As I have mentioned I am a member of the 
New Church or Sweedenborgian, as it is often called, 
to me it is the most beautiful and profound form of 
spiritual truth that has been given to the world. 
Words fail me to express what it is to my life. 


And now a few words regarding the grand-children 
and great-grand-children of this, (to us,) very remark- 
able family. 

Captain Johnston and Martha decided to locate in 


Macon. Captain Johnston is a gentleman of character 
and fine business talents, he is a successful financier 
and has become a man of wealth. He built a hand- 
some home on one of the most beautiful locations in 
Macon, here his family live in comfort and happi- 
ness and dispense a generous hospitality. Martha, 
now a silver haired matron, is still a handsome 
woman, she has ever been a social leader in Macon 
and excells in the management of her household. She 
resembles our mother in her devotion to flowers, the 
beautiful grounds around her house, in their arrange- 
ment and culture, attest her fine taste. Two hand- 
some children have blessed this marriage. Richard, 
the eldest, born in New York City, is a young man of 
fine character and business ability. Martha, Jr., born 
on Long Island, New York, is a very handsome and 
superior girl, she has inherited the dower that has 
seemed to follow the Martha's of the family, is famous 
as a belle and beauty. She is said to resemble the 
portrait of her great-grandmother Fort when she was 
young. Richard and Martha are unmarried 1902. 
The family have lived in Macon about twenty years. 
Edward Huguenin has been a man of poor health 
and was compelled to retire from active business. 
He desired to own the Macon home which had be- 
longed to his father, and after mother's death he 
bought the place and his family now reside there. It 
is a handsome old Southern home with a tall colonade 
in front, colonial style, beautifully located on a com- 
manding hill. Colonel Huguenin bought the property 
in about 1851, 1 think. There were born to Edward and 
Mary Huguenin two children, a son still born and a 
daughter who is named for her grand-mother, Julia 
Fort. She is their only child, is a handsome attrac- 
tive girl and the idol of her parents, she is unmarried 
1902. Edward takes a prominent part in military 
affairs in the State of Georgia, he has recently been 


elected Colonel of the Second regiment of the Georgia 
Volunteers, State troops. 

Mr. Tarver and Lila lived several years at Mr. 
Tarver's home, Tarversville, Twiggs County, Georgia, 
where Mr. Tarver owned large and valuable planta- 
tions. This was a typical large and comfortable 
Southern plantation home, handsomely located in a 
superb grove of old oak trees, near by were the 
"Quarters," as the homes of the negroes were called, 
and all of the belongings that pertain to ante-bellum 
Southern plantation life. Finding cotton planting 
unprofitable after the war, they moved to Macon for 
awhile and then came to Chattanooga. They lived 
for a few years on Lookout Mountain, but finally 
located in Chattanooga, where they now have a com- 
fortable home. Lila is a superior woman, like all of 
the Huguenins she is handsome, has great energy and 
executive ability, she can (as we express it), turn her 
hand to anything and do it well. Life moves on 
pleasantly with Mr. Tarver and herself, they have no 

Mr. Ellis and Dora live in their pretty home in 
Macon, Georgia. Mr. Ellis is a devoted husband and 
father, he is engaged in the dry goods business. Dora 
has the Huguenin birth-right, like her sisters, she is a 
handsome woman. She is a devoted mother and fine 
manager of the household, is noted as a house-keeper. 
Five children have been born to Mr. Ellis and Dora, 
namely, John Richard, Kate Fort, Edward Huguenin, 
Marshall Johnston and Tomlinson Fort, forming an 
interesting group of young people just on the thresh- 
hold of life. 

George Fort Milton is a man of superior talents. 
He completed his education at the University of the 
South, located at Sewanee, Tennessee, fearing that the 
severe strain of study was injuring his eyes he deci- 
ded not to finish the course. He determined to adopt 


literature as his' profession, he is a clear and forcible 
writer, with a taste for books and study that reminds 
me of my father. He married in Chattanooga, Ten- 
nessee, February 8, 1893, Miss Caroline Mounger 
McCall, a woman rarely gifted in social charm, of un- 
usual beauty and greatly beloved. She came of a 
good old Georgia family, her father was a merchant 
in Chattanooga. About eighteen months after their 
marriage they moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, where 
George had accepted a position as editor of a news- 
paper, the Daily Evening Sentinel. He has been 
very successful in the management of the paper and 
is now its editor and proprietor. This happy mar- 
riage so full of promise was soon to terminate. In the 
bloom of her youth and beauty, Carrie so beloved was 
taken from us, " what an oflSce was thine ; oh death." 
We realized how difficult it was to say, "Thy will be 
done." Caroline McCall Milton died in Knoxville 
August 1897, she was interred at Forest Hills Ceme- 
tery in Chattanooga. She left one child, George Fort 
Milton, Jr., born in Chattanooga November 19, 1895. 

It cannot be said that our family are wanting in 
patriotism. In every war in which the country has 
been engaged from the Revolution down to the pres- 
ent day they have been represented. George Milton 
served as first lieutenant in the late Spanish-American 
War. He was in the Sixth Regiment of Tennessee 
Immunes, United States Volunteers, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Lawrence Tyson. This war was of 
short duration, it began April 1, 1898, and peace was 
declared in April, 1899. 

Dr. Milton and Sallie now decided to move to 
Knoxville, George was left alone, he was their only 
child, they felt it to be their duty as well as their de- 
sire to be with him and assist in the care of young 
George, Jr. They were greatly attached to Chatta- 
nooga, had lived there eighteen years, were leaving a 

Three generations of the Marthas of the family, namesalces of Martha Low Fort. 

Grand Daughter, Great Grand Daughter. 



NEW vor 
i'PLlBLIC I ^1 

J/stor, Lenox <,„a h,de„ // 


comfortable home and many dear friends, but as our 
mother had said when she left Milledgeville, they 
made the sacrifice. Sallie is an intelligent and lovely 
woman, she was always called our witty sister and the 
most amiable member of the family. She is now en- 
gaged in rearing her grand-child, the life of the family 
centers around this bright interesting boy. 

And now my task is done. The twilight gathers 
around brother Tomlinson and myself as we linger 
over this eventful past of our lives, leaving the future 
in the hands of a loving God. Tom. often remarks to 
me that we are no longer young, peacefully, gratefully, 
we hope to continue to dwell together until our lives 
end. I have written with a full heart of my dear 
family, partial it may be, I have done my best and 
said what 1 have thought to be true. It is given in 
gratitude to the living and in loving memory of the 
dear ones who have entered into that blessed Eternity 
that awaits the good and true in life, in the great Be- 
yond. And so good-bye, with a fervent "God bless 
you " to all of the decendants of this honored ancestry. 



[From the Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, June 1859.] 

The readers of this journal will learn with profound 
sorrow, that Dr. Tomlinson Fort, one of the most ven- 
erable and eminent members of the medical profes- 
sion of Georgia, departed this life at his residence in 
Milledgeville, on the morning of Wednesday, the elev- 
enth of May. Though advanced in years, he was still 
vigorous; and none of the brightness of his intellect 
had been dimmed by the waste of time. He has sunk 
into the grave, and left us to feel that the loss is one 
of no common character, either to the profession which 
he adorned, or the commonwealth of which he was so 
worthy a citizen. Half a century of activity as a phy- 
sician and a statesman, has secured for Dr. Fort a 
name that the people "will not willingly let die." — 
His life furnishes much instruction to others, by show- 
ing, that honor and virtue, and intelligence, are the 
true standards of greatness; and that though there 
may be many obstacles to overcome, by holding these 
as the cardinal points of life, the goal of success may 
be finally achieved. 

Dr. Fort sprang from a worthy sire, a patriot and 
a statesman of the Revolutionary struggle. His 
father, Arthur Fort, was a soldier in those times, when 
to be a soldier, was to imperil not only life, but prop- 
erty and family. Tradition has encircled his brow 
with enduring laurels ; it has said of him, that he con- 
stituted one of the committee of Public Safety, to 
whose wisdom and prudence and vigilance, in those 
dark hours of danger and trial, the lives of their 
countrymen were entrusted ; and it has transmitted to 
his posterity the gratifying assurance, that he con- 
tributed his full share in the protection of the colo- 


nies in their time of struggle, and that he aided in 
safely launching them into independence. He was 
among those who were chosen by the people, to frame 
a constitution for the State of Georgia, when she 
emerged from the revolution. He united in construct- 
ing the new government, and was one of the signers 
of the Organic Law of our State. Living to a green 
old age, he was permitted to see the country for which 
he had fought, and suffered and labored, advancing in 
a career of unexampled prosperity. His son, Toralin- 
son, born in the county of Warren, on the 11th of July, 
1787, was brought up inured to the hardships and pri- 
vations of a newly settled territory. Knowing little 
of his early life, we can only say, that he never had 
the advantages of a collegiate education. His own 
untiring energy ; his love of learning, combined with 
a strong native intellect, enabled him to acquire the 
vast amount of knowledge of which he was the posses- 
sor. Early in the present century, he repaired to 
Philadelphia to attend Medical Lectures, and qualify 
himself for the practice of his profession. The cele- 
brated Dr. Rush, was then in the zenith of his fame, 
and under the charm of his prelections, Dr. Fort first 
imbibed that remarkable zeal in medical science, 
which distinguished him throughout his long life. 
Soon after obtaining his degree, he located in the town 
of Milledgeville, and commenced the practice of medi- 
cine. Devoting himself with great ardor to his duties 
and studies, he soon began to occupy a high position, 
and this eminence he maintained for fifty years. It 
may justly be said of him, that few men have been 
regarded with greater confidence in the management 
of diseases. 

His professional career was not the only channel 
through which Dr. Fort acquired his wide-spread repu- 
tation. Eminently fitted for public service he was 
often called on by his fellow citizens to occupy posi- 


tions of responsibility and usefulness. When the 
Seminole Indians were harassing; the frontiers of 
Georgia and Florida— Dr. Fort offered his services, 
and was appointed to a command under Gen. Daniel 
Newman. During the campaign in which he served, 
he was wounded in the knee, so seriously, that we be- 
lieve he never entirely recovered from it. The ball 
was not extracted until within the last few years of 
his life. 

During the memorable struggles between Gen. 
Clarke and George M. Troup, Dr. Fort was identified 
with one of the prominent leaders, of what was then 
called the "Clarke Party." Those who remember the 
fierce and furious warfare of that period, inform us 
that it was a contest between giants, and that no such 
scenes have ever been enacted in Georgia since. The 
struggles and the leaders have now nearly all passed 
away, and their feuds are spoken of without a vestige 
of the passion and feeling which characterized the 
manner in which they were conducted. New political 
organizations have been established, and those who 
once were bitter enemies, have been found standing 
side by side in defense of the same common principles. 
Dr. Fort was for a number of years, a member of the 
Georgia Legislature, from the county of Baldwin, and 
took an active part in the advocacy of all measures 
calculated to promote and elevate the State. So 
highly esteemed were his services, that in 1827 and 
1828, he was elected on the general ticket, one of the 
Representatives from Georgia, in the congress of the 
United States. On his retirement from this post, he 
became President of the Central Bank, and continued 
to discharge the duties of that responsible station for 
a number of years. He distinguished himself as an 
earnest and powerful advocate of the Internal Im- 
provement System, commenced by the State twenty- 
five years ago, and we have heard from a contempor- 


ary and early friend of Dr, Fort, that no man con- 
tributed more to the prosecution of our great State 
work — the Western & Atlantic Railroad. 

The most remarkable feature of Dr. Fort's intellect 
was its striking originality. He seemed to view all 
questions in a manner strictly his own, and his power- 
ful mind never failed to shed new light on everything 
it touched. His knowledge of books was extensive 
and diversified. In conversation he poured out vast 
streams of curious lore, and seemed familiar with 
every subject that could be suggested. It was delight- 
ful to listen to him expatiating on some point in phy- 
sical science, or in history. What was before myste- 
rious or hardly explicable, became under his lucid and 
comprehensive explanation, clear and interesting. 
He stripped science of its diflBculties, and made it ac- 
cessible to the most uninitiated. 

His home at Milledgeville, was, for a quarter of a 
century, a notable place, frequented by a wide circle 
of the learned and able men of the State ; of that cir- 
cle he was the center, and those who were wont to sur- 
round him in social enjoyment, will feel that there is 
a void which can never be filled, and that death has 
robbed the capital of one of its greatest attractions. 
Let his example never be forgotten, but brighten with 
accumulating years, and let his memory be sacred in 
the profession of which he was so bright an ornament, 
and among the people to whom he consecrated so 
much of his active life. 

We append the following report of the proceedings 
of the physicians of Milledgeville relative to the death 
of Dr. Fort : 

"At a meeting of the physicians of Milledgeville, 
held this day, Dr. G. D. Case was called to the chair, 
and Dr. S. G. White requested to act as secretary, 
when the following preamble and resolutions were 
adopted : 


Whereas, it has pleased the Almighty to remove 
from his sphere of usefulness our venerable and be- 
loved brother, Tomlinson Fort, who for nearly fifty 
years has labored arduously, with great ability and 
success professionally in this community, and whose 
eminent reputation is commensurate with the South- 
ern country. 

Resolved^ That we deeply deplore the loss our pro- 
fession has sustained in the death of one, who for so 
many years, has adorned, dignified and most creditably 
exercised our time-honored vocation. 

Resolved^ That we sincerely sympathize with the 
family of our deceased brother, in this their sorest 
aflliction, and heartily commend them to Him, who 
alone can medicate to the broken heart, and soothe 
the wounded spirit. 

Resolved^ That we will, as a body attend the fu- 
neral obsequies of our departed brother, and wear the 
usual badge of mourning thirty days. 

Resolved^ That the Secretary be requested to pre- 
sent a copy of these proceedings to the family, and 
furnish the papers of the city with another for publi- 

Resolved^ That we consider these resolutions merely 
as a professional tribute to our brother, leaving the 
detailed and minute recital of his history to those 
who may write his obituary. 

Resolved, That a notice of the death of our vene- 
rated brother be published in the Medical Journals of 
the State. 

G. D. CASE, Chairman. 
S. G. White, Secretary. 

Milledgeville, May 11, 1859. 



[From Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, May 1885.1 

Our picture gallery is ornamented this month with 
the likeness of one of the most distinguished and suc- 
cessful physicians who has ever lived in the State of 

Dr. Tomlinson Fort was of English ancestry. His 
father, Hon. Arthur Fort, came to Georgia when a 
young man, before the revolutionary war, and was an 
active participant in the stirring scenes of that event- 
ful period. As a member of the Committee of Safety ; 
as a soldier in the field against British, Tories and In- 
dians ; as a member of the Legislature, he gave to the 
patriots' cause and to his country the benefit of his 
clear intellect, his true heart and his strong arm. 

He married a Mrs. Whitehead (nee Tomlinson), of 
Burke county, and reared a numerous family of chil- 
dren, the fourth of whom, named after his mother's 
family, Tomlinson, is the subject of this sketch. 

Dr. Fort was born in 1787, precisely coeval with 
the constitution of the United States. After the then 
usual period of apprentisage or private pupilage, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and and prepared himself for 
graduation in the University of Pennsylvania, under 
the tuition of Rush, Physic and their confreres, who 
then illustrated that renowned institution. 

Returning to Georgia, he settled in Milledgeville, 
the capital of the State, where he spent his entire pro- 
fessional life. His success came early and knew no 
diminution. His dignified manners and his absolute 
integrity inspired confidence and respect, and a pecu- 
liar magnetism drew to him the strong, personal at- 
tachment of all with whom he came in contact. His 
reputation was not long confined to the town or county 


of his residence, but extended widely over the State, 
and few, if any, of the physicians of the State have 
ever gained so large a clientage or such honorable 
distinction. Dr. Fort brought to bear in his practice 
a well-balanced mind, a large stock of common sense, 
keenness of observation and a power of analysis, 
which enabled him to judge truly of popular supersti- 
tions, reckless assertions of authors, and to reject, 
when he deemed them erroneous, the dogmas, even of 
his favorite teacher. Dr. Rush. To the revolution in 
the practice of physic which occurred during his life, 
which delivered us from the ravages of mercury and 
salivation, from the dangerous, indiscriminate use of 
the lancet, and from the horrible torture of days of 
fever without the solace of a single drop of cold water, 
Dr. Fort contributed his full share. 

He was not a voluminous contributor to the peri- 
odical, professional literature of the period, but late 
in life he published a volume of some seven hundred 
pages, which he modestly called a "Dissertation on 
the Practice of Medicine." This book he dedicated to 
the physicians of the State of Georgia, as a grateful 
acknowledgment of the kindness, respect and confi- 
dence which he had experienced at the hands of every 
one of them with whom he had the honor of becom- 
ing acquainted. This work, he says, "is, in its nature, 
ephemeral." Its author does not claim for it a place 
among the standard works of the day, but some of the 
more important diseases are treated at considerable 
length and with great ability. It exhibits throughout, 
the care, candor, acumen, originality and courage of 
conviction of its author. No physician can read it 
without instruction, or finish its perusal without the 
highest respect for his moral as well as professional 
characteristics. As a book for the guidance of fami- 
lies, where good medical advice is not attainable, it is 
held in high esteem. 


Dr. Fort's popularity and influence in the city of 
his residence were overwhelming. The first case of 
small-pox that ever occurred there was under his care. 
He gave to it the conscientious attention he deemed 
requisite, but the alarm in the community was so 
great that neither nurse nor shelter could be pro- 
cured, and the doctor furnished one and became the 
other. The alarmed citizens, in a town meeting, re- 
solved to compel him, by violence, if necessary, to 
desist from his attentions. He quietly placed a loaded 
gun at his door and notified them that he would per- 
mit no one to interrupt the discharge of his profes- 
sional duties. When the danger was passed, the fickle 
mob again met and passed a resolution of thanks, 
complimenting him on his courage and fidelity. 

The suflFerer was a son of Governor Clarke, whose 
family presented the doctor with a magnificent ser 
vice of silver-plate as a token of gratitude. 

Laborious in his profession, as he was for many 
years, he was not unmindful of any of the duties of 
citizenship. In the war of 1812, he raised and com- 
manded a company, and received in battle a wound in 
the knee, which gave him great suffering during the 
remainder of his life. 

He represented Baldwin county eight years in the 
halls of legislation, and the State two years in the 
Congress of the United States. 

A sketch of his political character and standing, 
kindly furnished by his distinguished and venerable 
friend, the Hon. Junius Hillyer, is subjoined. 

Of the life in Washington his then young wife 
writes as follows : " Two years after our marriage my 
husband was sent to Congress. I went with him, tak- 
ing our only child, Julia, going in our own carriage. 

"Those two years in Washington were bright ones 
and are vividly remembered. I met many agreeable 
and cultivated people, boarded with the Bigelows of 


Boston, and Mr. and Mrs. Edward Everett. He was a 
charming man, and she a very nice, though not re- 
markable person. I met, of course, the best people in 
the land ; dined more than once at the President's 
(Adams), and saw a great deal of society. I met 
Henry Clay, with his bright blue eye and eloquent 
tongue, and Mrs. Clay, a good but plain woman, 
whom he had married in obscurity and had after- 
wards outgrown. Also Webster, who, with his great 
head and solemn ways, was not a favorite with women. 
But the greatest of all to me was my own and my 
husband's friend, John 0. Calhoun. Such a brilliant 
eye and such fascinating manners I have never seen 

" I saw the inauguration of President Jackson. His 
progress up the avenue on horseback was simple, yet 

At the close of his term in Congress, Dr. Fort re- 
tired from active political life; the wants of a grow- 
ing family and the expenses of a profuse and generous 
hospitality demanded the resources of his large pro- 
fessional income, and he sacrificed a most brilliant 
public career upon the altar of domestic and social 

Dr. Fort, in 1824, married Miss Martha Fannin, 
one of the most admired and accomplished belles 
of the elegant society which at that time existed 
in Middle Georgia. The Fannin family, already dis. 
tinguished in Ireland before their emigration to the 
colonies, has representatives in nearly every State 
from Canada to Texas, the men always noted for 
patriotism and personal valor, the women for intelli- 
gence and personal beauty. The Georgia Fanning 
showed the ancestral traits, and none more notably 
than the fair representative who, at twenty years old, 
bound in indissoluble chains the grave, sedate, Qua- 
ker-like bachelor of thirty-seven. As the readers of 


the Journal are not ladies, it is useless to describe 
the quiet wedding or the bridal dress. The charac- 
teristic fact, however, is noted that the busy doctor 
forgot to order his swallow-tail coat of blue broad- 
cloth, with large brass buttons, until almost too late 
to don it before the ceremony. The marriage was a 
happy one. Their home was established in Milledge- 
ville, where they lived until the date of his death, 
11th May, 1859. 

During all that period he was at the summit of 
professional reputation, of social standing and politi- 
cal influence. 

Dr. Fort left three sons and several daughters. 
The eldest son. Dr. George Fort, died shortly after his 
father. Col. Tomlinson Fort, a lawyer, and lately 
mayor of that city, lives in Chattanooga, unmarried. 
Col. John Fort, married to the accomplished sister of 
the Hon. W. D. Ellis, of this city, lives near Macon 
and is engaged in agricultural pursuits. Two of the 
daughters died and one is unmarried. The youngest 
is the wife of Julius Brown, Esq., a most prominent 
lawyer, and an influential and wealthy citizen of the 
city of Atlanta. 


[By Judge Junius Hillyer.J 

Dr. Miller: 

Dear Sir — My knowledge of Dr. Tomlinson Fort 
commenced in 1828. I saw him in Milledgeville dur- 
ing the session of the Legislature in the fall of that 
year. In person he was tall, straight, symmetrical, 
and a form indicating endurance, health and a sound 
constitution. He had a sedate but cheerful, friendly 
expression that inspired his associates with respect 
and kind feelings toward him. And I do not believe 


that his feelings were ever wounded by his most bit- 
ter political opponents or by any of his personal asso- 
ciates. When I first knew him he was in the prime 
of manhood, perhaps between thirty-five and forty 
years of age. He was an active, working member of 
the old Clarke party, and was personally known by 
every prominent man in the State, for the men of both 
parties sought and valued his acquaintance. Dr. Fort 
was not numbered among the great orators of his day. 
I have often heard him speak in public. He rarely 
spoke over half an hour, and always kept close to the 
questions under consideration, and without any flour- 
ishes of rhetoric or efl'ort at the beautiful, he gave his 
views in a plain, straightforward, earnest manner, 
which commanded the attention of his hearers, while 
everything he said was understood clearly, and it was 
no labor to listen to him and follow his line of thought. 
Such a speaker must necessarily command attention 
and wield an influence. Dr. Fort, as a party man, 
was a strong, important leader. He held the most ex- 
treme partisan views ; he held, and always openly 
avowed, the good old Jackson democratic doctrine, 
that " to the victors belong the spoils." His party 
motto was, "Turn them out; put the government in 
the hands of the Democrats." As a partisan he was 
pre-eminently a Bourbon Democrat. He never learned 
any new principles and he never changed his old 
ones. He was a man of the people ; he lived with 
the people ; he guided their political ideas and 
moulded their judgments. In his party he preferred 
a position in the ranks of a private. He rarely sought 
oflSce. I am sure he could have attained any office in 
the gift of the people if he had desired it. Here we 
have a man who began life in the midst of the angry 
strife of the P'ederal and Republican parties, partici- 
pated actively in all the stirring scenes of the last war 
with England. The strife over the United States 


bank ; the inauguration of the tariff policy ; the bit- 
ter personal strife between the Clarke and Crawford 
parties and the Clarke and Troup parties ; our contro- 
versies about the Indians and Indian lands ; our angry- 
strife about nullification and the Union ; General 
Jackson's war on the United States bank ; the sub- 
treasury ; the war with Mexico and the acquisition of 
Texas ; the slavery question and the compromise of 
1850, stirring and moving the people through all these 
long years down to the time of his death, a period of 
half a century — all these scenes he witnessed. He 
mingled with the actors. He participated in the dis- 
cussion of all these momentous questions with much 
crimination and recrimination, with many a duel and 
many a fight, and wide-spread hatred and life-long 
animosity, yet from it all he came forth in his old age 
out of this fiery ordeal without the smell of fire on 
his garments — universally beloved by all men of all 
parties. The reason is plain — he was wise, he was 
good, he was just, and he was polite. 

Twelve years we were together on the Board of 
Trustees of the State University, and every year, for 
nearly thirty years, I saw him in Milledgeville, and 
often in other places, so I can say I knew him well. 
And I know his character, what his acquaintances say 
of him — of his private life. All can be said in one 
short line : He stood through his long life above re- 

Through all the length and breadth of the State 
Dr. Fort was, in the judgment of all who knew him, 
in the first rank of his profession. More than one 
generation must pass away before, in Baldwin county, 
his skill, his patience and his kindness to the sick and 
to the poor will be forgotten. 

Respectfully, Junius Hellyer. 

Decatur, May 9th, 1885. 




Which Took Place in Florida, September 11, 1812. 

[By John Porter Fort.] 

An account of the battle of Twelve Miles Swamp 
which took place in Florida during the war of 1812, in 
which Captain Tomlinson Fort and his company, the 
Baldwin Volunteers of Milledgeville, Ga., were en- 
gaged and Captain Fort was severely wounded. 

On to-day, the anniversary of the marriage of our 
dear Father and Mother, I propose to write as far as 
my memory serves me, of the facts related to me by 
my Father of the battle in which he was wounded in 
Florida. I have no recollection of his statement as to 
any special reason for his entering the service, except 
that of a patriotic desire to serve his country and only 
know as a fact that he left Baldwin County, Georgia, 
after war was declared against Great Britain, as the 
captain of a company of fifty-nine men that he organ- 
ized. The command left Milledgeville to march to 
Dublin on the Oconee river, via Darien to Florida, 
Florida was then a territory owned by Spain. At that 
time the United States was not only at war with 
Great Britain, but a practical state of war with Spain 
existed in Florida. 

The original order that I have in my possession 
reads as follows : 

Detachment Orders. — "Captain Fort will order 
his company to assemble in Milledgeville on Wednes- 
day the 1st of July, to march at two o'clock to Dublin. 

Daniel Newman, A. G. 

Commdg. D. T." 

I have the original muster roll of Father's com- 
pany made at the Block House at Davis Creek, East 
Florida, 24th of August 1812. 


That battle in which my Father was ^wounded, 
was called the battle of "Twelve Miles Swamp." 

I find also the following certificate in Father's 
hand writing upon the muster roll of this company. 

"State of New York, 

Sackett's Harbor 11th of Feb. 1814. 
I certify that Captain Tomlinson Fort of the 'Geor- 
gia Volunteers' was severely wounded through the 
knee on the 11th of September 1812 while gallantly 
performing his duty in the service of the United 
States. T. A. Smith 

Col. Rifle Regiment." 

I also find from certain old letters from Father's 
First Lieutenant A. B. Fannin, that his company sym- 
pathized with him and hoped for his recovery, also 
that the company returned from Florida via St. Mary's 
and Hartford on the Ocmulgee river. Of all matters 
connected with his campaign in Florida, I have no re- 
collection except of two incidents. One was the prep- 
aration for an attack on a Spanish fort, near or at St. 
Augustine, in which his company had scaling ladders 
prepared to storm the fort, but the order was never 
received to make the attempt; the other was the bat- 
tle in which he was wounded. I obtained an account 
of this battle while a child in my good Father's lap, 
asking him questions. My recollection is about this, 
and it may be taken as correct : It appears that my 
Father's company, with a portion of other troops, was 
stationed in a fort or block house, and that the troops 
were expecting a wagon train of supplies. The train 
did not arrive when due and it was feared that it had 
been captured by the enemy, which proved to be true. 
It was determined to send out a detachment of men 
to guard the wagon train into the fort, the distance 
could not be more than twelve miles at furthest, it 


was thought. From some cause Col. Williams, who 
was in command of the troops accompanied the de- 
tachment, it comprised twenty or thirty men, and 
would have been under command of father had not 
Col. Williams accompanied them, this being the case 
father was armed with a musket, as were all the men. 
It seems that they marched the entire twelve miles 
before they arrived where the wagon train was 
thought to be safe which in the meantime had been 
captured by the Spaniards and Indians. Fairbanks' 
History of Florida states that the attacking party was 
comprised of negroes, of whom a large number had 
taken refuge in Florida, but I give the account as re- 
ceived from ray father's lips. This relief party was 
expected by the enemy, who had formed an ambus- 
cade in a dense swamp near where the train was cap- 
tured. The detachment did not arrive until after 
night-fall, when they were suddenly attacked by a 
body of Spaniards and Indians, consisting of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five men. On being fired upon in the 
darkness, Col. Williams ordered his men to stand 
firm and " whip the enemy." I asked my father how 
often he fired his musket, he said eight times during 
the engagement of nearly an hour. That in the mean 
time Col. Williams was wounded and could no longer 
stand, but was continually urging his men to " whip 
the enemy." While Col. Williams badly wounded 
was falling by father's side, father took him in his 
arms, while there Col. Williams was struck three sep- 
arate times with balls, it was very dark and the sol- 
diers shot at each other by the flashes of their guns. 
Father's statement is, that having laid Col. Williams 
down he took command of the few remaining men 
left and ordered them to retreat, he said that this or- 
der should have been given long before. As he was 
gathering the few men left together, a gun flashed in 
his face and a ball struck him upon the knee. He at 


first thought he was slightly wounded, but soon found 
his boot filled with blood and his leg giving away. 
The firing on both sides seemed to cease, he discov- 
ered he could collect but seven men, and some of 
those were more or less wounded. With these men 
under his command he managed to retreat a mile or 
so when his leg gave entirely away, he authorized the 
men to leave him, but they refused to do so, saying 
that they would protect him with their lives. He 
used his gun as a crutch and his leg gave him great 

It was near midnight and the seven men were sit- 
ting close together in the woods, when a large animal 
either a wolf or conger came very near them, attracted 
by the blood of the wounded, and threatened to attack 
them for a long time and did not leave until near day, 
they could see the glare of its eyes in the darkness. 
I asked father why he did not shoot it, he said that 
his gun was stopped up with mud from its use as a 
crutch, and that they dared not make any noise for 
fear of giving the enemy notice of their position. 
Next morning with the assistance of the men with him 
during the day he managed to walk twelve miles to 
the fort. One of the best men was sent to the fort 
with the information of the battle and the entire gar- 
rison went forward to their relief. On arriving at the 
battle-field it appeared that the Spaniards had re- 
treated before daylight with most of their dead and 
wounded. Col. Williams was found on the battle-field 
alive, with fourteen bullet wounds in his person, he 
was taken to the fort and lived a week or more before 
he died, the other men left were dead. They after- 
wards learned that the casualties of the enemy were 
far in excess of theirs. The attacking force was com- 
posed mostly of Spaniards with some Indians, they 
numbered about 125 men and lost in killed and 
wounded near half of their number. It was a fight at 


close range in a swamp upon a dark, foggy night, the 
principal shooting being at the flash of the enemies' 
guns. He accounted for the great loss of the Span- 
iards by reason of their being in close ranks, neither 
side closed in the contest. The ball that struck father 
penetrated the knee and rested by the artery, upon 
the nerve of the leg, the surgeons were afraid to at- 
tempt to extract it, and his leg became so drawn that 
he was advised to have it amputated, as he was 
assured that he would never again use it, he went on 
crutches for a long time. He stated to me that he 
regained the use of his leg by lifting from its position 
a large amount of stone from an old burial place 
across Fishing creek in Baldwin county, near Milledge- 
ville, it required several months to complete this 
undertaking. The motive for this labor was first, by 
continually using the muscles of his leg in lifting 
these stones to thus straighten his leg and next, to see 
what was beneath this great pile of stone. By this 
work he partially regained the use of his leg and it 
was the real cause of his recovery. He found at the 
bottom of this great pile of stones the enamel of 
human teeth with no other vestige whatever of a hu- 
man being, he then remarked to me, " my son, the 
enamel of the teeth is the last part of the body to de- 
cay." This bullet imbedded in our father's knee 
always gave him more or less pain at intervals and 
made a slight impediment in his walk and as time 
went on, the ball seemed to poison his entire system 
and caused him great suflFering. Forty years after he 
was wounded, he was bedridden with lead poisoning 
from this ball, and it was thought that he would never 
walk again. He decided to have the ball extracted 
and brother George, his son, then a competent sur- 
geon, agreed to attempt the operation. Brother cut 
into the leg upon the under side and discovered the 
bullet lying next to the artery upon the large nerve 


of the leg. He pulled it from its place with his thumb 
and finger, and when it was withdrawn the pain was 
so great that father swooned away, and it was a long 
time before he recovered. The ball was a small rifle 
ball and had upon one side of it the plain indentation 
of the two front teeth of a man. It was doubtless 
held by the soldier in the excitement of the battle 
between his teeth, as he was charging his rifle with 
powder and preparing to load it. The ball had be- 
come partially white as it seemed to be somewhat ab- 
sorbed into the system After this operation father's 
health improved, but he was never well, the poison of 
this lead ^^ffected his system until his death. 

Following is a complete roster of the company, the 
original spelling being preserved: 


Tomlinson Fort. 


Phil. D. Logan, Ensign E. Hamilton, 

A. B. Fannin, Henry Franklin. 

James S. Sims, 


Anderson Holt, William Bivins, 

Wilson Navy, Thos. A. Epps. 


William Repeau, John Bozeman, 

B. H. Sturges, E. M. Attaway. 


Isaac Perry, Thomas B. Grantland, 

Welie Riddle, William B. Forsythe, 

George Worsham, Elijah Hall, 

Travis Si raughn, David Wright, 

William Jordon, Jeremiah Vollotini, 

Samuel Buchannan, Layton Golden, 


W. I. Mordecai, 
James Yarborough, 
Jesse Luke, 
David Baker, 
Richard Kimborough, 
A. M. Harris, 
John McOree, 
Zack Jourdan, 
Simeon Sims, 
John B. Horton, 
Henry Freeman, 
Joshua Lovett, 
William Moore, 
James Austin, 
Thomas W. A. Reeks, 

Kadduck Hoard, 
Robert Prestwood, 
Leroy Wylie, 
David Imerson, 
Hartwell VV. Smith, 
Amos F. B -yington, 
Samuel Good a II, 
James W. Whitaker, 
John B. Hogan, 
John McDonald, 
James Gamble, 
Coonrad Peterson, 
Elijnh Boyington, 
Ben B. Smith. 


[By George Fort MUlon.] 

The ordinary man would find sufficient employ- 
ment for his activities in fifty years' hard service at 
an exacting profession. 

Especially would this be the case if he had to pro- 
vide for a large family and during much of his life 
was burdened with debt. 

There are few so situated who would find any time 
for public work. But my grandfather was not an 
usual man. Obstacles, which to others would have 
proved insuperable, seemed only to stimulate him to 
extra effort. Before he had reached middle age he 
had not only attained eminence in medicine but also 
in politics and public life. His interest in these he 
no doubt inherited from his illustrious father. 

From 1764, when at the early age of fifteen he had 
been appointed by Sir James Wright, the British gov- 
ernor of Georgia, a lieutenant in the Militia, Arthur 
Fort had occupied places of honor and prominence. 

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four dationa. 


He was a member of the board of councillors or 
"committee of safety " under Gov. John Adam Treut- 
len, the Saltzburgher, in 1777, and under Gov. John 
Houston in 1778. 

He served in the constitutional conventions of 
1788 and 1798. 

He was appointed judge of the Inferior Court in 
Warren county in 1799 and Twiggs county in 1809. 
The period of his public activities extended until after 
his son, Toml nson, had reached his 22d year ; had ac- 
quired his profession at Philadelphia, and had settled 
in Milledgevilie. The latter's first service of a public 
nature was at the age of 25 as captain of a volunteer 
company raised in Baldwin county in 1812 and called 
out by the State to serve against the Indians in Flor- 
ida. On September 11 of that year at Davis Creek, 
Fla., he was wounded in the knee. There is no record 
of ray grandfather holding any other public office un- 
til the year 1818, when he was elected to the lower 
house of the S ate Legislature from Baldwin county 
and was re-elected successively for eight years, or un- 
til 1825. When he entered the Legislature William 
Rabun was governor. He served also under John 
Clarke and George M. Troup. The Indians still occu- 
pied two-thirds of Georgia. Most of the white popu- 
lation was then largely confined to the region east of 
the Altamaha river. The great political question of 
that day in the state was the extinguishment of the 
Creek and Cherokee Indian titles. This the federal 
government had agreed to do, when Georgia for the 
small consideration of $1,250,000 had yielded its claim 
to Mississippi. The government then bound itself to 
remove the Indians, "as soon as it could be done 
peaceably and on reasonable terms." But it had been 
very slow in carrying out this agreement. In fact 
organized tribes of Indians remained on Georgia soil 
until after 1836. 


Other leading questions before the Legislature dur- 
ing the years my grandfather was a member con- 
cerned internal improvements, schools, State banks, 
and the penitentiary. My grandfather from the first 
took a leading part in the proceedings. His committee 
assignments were very desirable. He served at one 
time or another as chairman of the " committee on the 
penitentiary " and of the "committee on agriculture 
and internal improvements," and also as a member of 
the "committee on banks," of the "committee on 
education and free schools," of the "committee on the 
state of the republic," and of the "judiciary." He 
was repeatedly chairman of special committees and of 
the "committee of the whole." He favored every 
measure for public education and introduced the first 
bill in Georgia, of which I can find a record, for a 
common school system throughout the State. Failing 
in that he made a similar and more successful effort 
for Baldwin county. He took a keen interest in im- 
proving the rivers and in encouraging steam naviga- 

His knowledge of finances and bankirfg brought 
him into prominence with regard to the chartering 
and conduct of the many banks which were then be- 
ing established, flooding the State with their doubtful 

At an extra session of the Legislature called by 
Gov. Clarke in 1821 to provide for the disposition of 
territory lately acquired from the Creeks by treaty, 
he was appointed on the important committee to re- 
port the necessary statutes. The land was disposed of 
by lottery. He believed in popular government and 
moved an amendment to the constitution to elect the 
governors by the people instead of by the Legislature. 

It was defeated by a close vote, but subsequently 

His humanity was shown by the introduction of a 


bill to increase the ration to convicts. He was one of 
the leaders of the Clarke party in the House. Duncan 
G. Campbell was another. 

This was a period of personal politics ; all were 

The Federalist party was dead and the Whig party 
not yet in existence. The issues were of men and 
State measures. 

John Clarke was the son of Elijah Clarke, the 
great partisan chief, a man who was for Georgia very 
much what John Sevier was for Tennessee. In dispo- 
sition Gov. Clarke was like Andrew Jackson. He had 
a violent temper and was an unrelenting foe, but, 
nevertheless, was of fine mind and honest character. 
The well-to-do and the " low country " people looked 
on him as dangerous, just as similar classes elsewhere 
looked on " Old Hickory." 

William H. Crawford, Senator from Georgia and a 
candidate for President in 1824 was the leader of the 
opposing faction and was powerfully aided by the 
polished and forceful Geo. M. Troup, of Savannah, 
who was elected Governor in that year. 

The extra session of 1825 was called by Gov. Troup 
to take action on the Indian question, especially the 
massacre of William Macintosh. At that time the 
relations between Georgia and the United States 
were greatly strained. In his message Troup advised 
the Legislature, "Having exhausted the argument, 
stand by your arms!" No other military measures 
were taken, however, than the purchase of 600 copies 
of Scott's military tactics. 

The principal issue was whether or not the govern- 
ment Indian agent, Crowell, had been an accessory to 
the murder of Macintosh. 

The latter, a half-breed Indian, the nephew of 
Troup, after signing the treaty which yielded the 
Creek lands had been slain by hia race. Crowell was 


a Clarke man and this helped to incense the Troup 
party. The majority insisted that the government 
remove him. My grandfather made a minority report 
on the action of the agent, advising a more moderate 
course. Undoubtedly the man was innocent and the 
treaty a fraud, though the Senate of the United States 
had ratified it. My grandfather led in the fight 
against the governor but was unsuccessful. He does 
not seem, however, to have opposed Troup's Indian 
policy in general. In fact, the white people of Geor- 
gia were then a unit on the Indian question. 

One notable resolution introduced by my grand- 
father in this legislature was that Africans illegally 
imported in violence of the laws against the slave 
trade should be turned over to a colonization society 
to be returned to Africa. The adoption of the resolu- 
tion showed the feeling at that time toward the negro 
in a representative Southern State. My grandfather 
always looked with abhorrence on African slavery 
and regarded the negro's presence in the South a 
curse. He assisted several of his slaves to buy their 

His next public work was in the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Federal Congress. He was a mem- 
ber from March 4, 1827, to March 4, 1829. John 
Quincy Adams was President. He was elected from 
the state at-large for the sixth district, his associates 
being John Floyd, Chas. E. Haynes, George R. Gil- 
mer, Wilson Lumpkin, Wiley Thompson and Richard 
H. Wilde. Gilmer and Lumpkin afterward became 
governors. In the same Congress were Martin Van- 
Buren, John Tyler, James Buchanan and James K. 
Polk afterward Presidents, Hugh Lawson White and 
John Bell afterward candidates for President, Daniel 
Webster, Robert Y. Hayne, Thomas H. Benton, Ed- 
ward Everett and the unique ''Davy" Crockett, all 
noted in American history. It was a famous Congress. 


John 0. Calhoun was Vice-president and an intimate 
friend of my grandfather. 

He was not assigned to any commit'ee during the 
first session, but during the second was placed on the 
"committee on the territories," a very important com- 
mittee at that time for a Georgian. The tariff adop- 
ted by this Congress was known as the '•tariff* of 
abominations" and was the cause of the nullification 
movement in South Carolina. Besides the tariff" the 
other important question at issue was that of internal 
impiovements by the Federal government This pol- 
icy had not yet been established. In fact, in 1822 
President Monroe had vetoed an appropriation for the 
Cumberland road. My grandfather stood solidly with 
his party on the tariff question, but favored internal 

The democrats generally opposed this policy, as 
unconstitutional. In other respects he was a "Jack- 
son democrat," and usually described by his contem- 
poraries as a partisan. 

On Tuesday, Jan. 8, 1828, he introduced a resolu- 
tion instructing the committee on the judiciary to in- 
quire if any of the Indian tribes had organized a gov- 
ernment with a view to a permanent location in any 
of the states, and, if so, to report measures to arrest 
sueh movement. This referred to the continued pres- 
ence of the Creeks, Cherokees and Seminoles in Geor- 
gia, in spite of the agreement that the government 
had made to remove them. 

The resolution was adopted. On April 14, 1828, 
he took part in the discussion of the tariff bill. He 
spoke in favor of an amendment making the rate on 
indigo, then raised in the South, $1 per pound. He 
said that those who supported the tariff system "again 
and again asserted that a protecting tariff is no tux 
on the consumer because, as they aver, the price is in- 
variably reduced." 

138 MEMorns of the fort and fannin families 

''Let us see how their faith in this maxim extends. 
Let them bring down the price of indigo by laying 
this impost." 

The protectionists were in the majority however, 
and the argument failed. Strange how similar the 
controversy over the tarifT then and now. On May 1, 
182^, on the spur of the moment, he made an eloquent 
speech in defense of his State. Georgia was being 
criticised for having exacted a bond of the govern- 
ment to remove the Indians. ''The permanent loca- 
tion of the tribes in the most valuable part of her ter- 
ritory can never be regarded by Georgia as anything 
else than an attempt to keep her in a perpetual state 
of pupilage ; and her sons cannot be expected to sub- 
mit to it in silence," he said. 

His most serious address was on January 26, 1829, 
when he spoke for an hour and a half in favor of a 
bill for an appropriation for the Cumberland road, 
leading from Cumberland, Md., to the west. This in- 
volved the whole question of internal improvements. 

The speech is a philosophic examination of the 
character of our union and the relation between the 
states and the federal government, as bearing on the 
question of the right of the federal government to 
build a road or make other improvement in a State. 

It is one of the ablest discussions of the constitu- 
tional question, which afterward for a time disrupted 
the nation, that I have ever read, and no descendant 
of Tomlinson Fort can peruse this masterly oration 
without realizing that he was a statesman in the ful- 
lest sense. Although not a lawyer he understood the 
federal constitution as few have done. If the Demo- 
crats of the South had seen the matter, as they have 
since seen it, and this section had thus been able to 
secure the internal improvements that have gone else- 
where, how much richer would be the South ! 


He made a powerful argument for popular sov- 

"The powers of the government * * * are de- 
rived from a higher source," he said. 

"The sovereignty it exercises is for an authority 
as much greater than that of a State as the whole of a 
people are greater than a part, and that is not only 
80 from the reasonableness of the thing, but has been 
uniformly so received from the foundation of the gov- 
ernment." "I think I have shown," he said again, 
"that the United States is a government of the people 
and that its powers are all sovereign and paramount, 
though in many instances not exclusive." He ex- 
plained that he was the only one of the Georgia dele- 
gation voting for the appropriation. "Whatever 
course the attitude of public opinion of the South may 
set on this important question," he said, "there is one 
things of which I have not a single doubt. No part of 
the United States is so deeply interested in maintain- 
ing the policy and practice of carrying on the work of 
internal improvement by aid from the government." 
This was his last speech in Congress. On the question 
of nullification my grandfather, although a close per- 
sonal friend of Calhoun, stood firmly with Andrew 
Jackson. It is said that he met the former at the 
University of Georgia and talked with him one night 
till 2 o'clock on the subject, Calhoun endeavoring to 
convince my grandfather that he was right. Their 
correspondence was voluminous. 

I have not been able to learn why my grandfather 
was not a candidate for re-election. It is the impres- 
sion in our family that it was owing to increasing 
domestic cares and the necessity of closer application 
to his profession. In the year 1829 he was chosen a 
trustee of the University of Georgia, and served for 
twenty seven years on the governing board of that 
honorable institution. 


In the year 1882,* he became president of the Cen- 
tral Bank of Georgia at Milledgeville. This bank had 
been organized under the Act of 1828 and its capital 
consisted of all the money in the treasury of the State, 
not otherwise appropriated, in the shares owned by 
the State in the Bank of Augusta, the Planter's Bank, 
the Bank of the State of Georgia, the Bank of Darien, 
and proceeds of the sale of lands. 

It was a very important institution and its history 
something unique in finance. In the year 1834 this 
bank had a capital of $2,485,73:^, circulation of $237,- 
725 and specie amounting to $135,18<3. My i^rand- 
father was president until the year 1844, Although 
it had a stormy and checkered career it served a very 
useful purpose, as the Western and Atlantic Railroad 
was built with its notes. After the "crash" of 1837, 
following a period of speculation and railroad build- 
ing, not only in Georgia but all over the world, the 
bank, as did all financial institutions, had great diffi- 
culty in realizing on its assets. In addition it was 
severely hampered by an act of the legislature per- 
mitting the counties of the State to use the money 
formerly paid as state taxes for county purposes. 

During the bank's prosperity it had paid the inter- 
est on the state debt, as well as the expenses of the 
state government, but now the depression had come 
these became onerous. In fact they were a ruinous 
burden on the institution. Gov. McDonald a warm 
friend of my grandfather, to whom he was the most 
confidential advisor, insisted that the legislature re- 
store and increase these taxes. When that body was 
about to adjourn in 1840 without doing so he ordered 
the treasurer not to issue warrants except when there 
was money in the treasury for the appropriation. 

This brought the legislature to time, although 

* There is some doDbt abont this date. I take it from an obituary article 
in the Federal Union. However, there is no question whatever' that he 
served in that capacity longer than any other president. 


there was a stormy scene. The bank for a time was 
made a political issue by the whigs. This must have 
been an unpleasant episode in my grandfather's life. 
He stuck to his difficult post, however, and came out 
triumphant in the end, always retaining public con- 

On November 5, 1840, Robert Toombs, leader of 
the Whig party, moved a special committee to inquire 
fully into the management and situation of the Cen- 
tral Bank. This committee attempted to secure the 
repeal of the charter, but failed. 

Gov. McDonald all the time stood loyally by the 
institution and spoke of it in a message as being "un- 
der the management of an able and experienced 
board of directors." "This institution with a liberal- 
ity becoming it," he said, "had administered to the 
general relief with all the means at its command." 
"The severity of the times had been greatly miti- 
gated," he said again, " by its magnanimous forbear- 
ance." Gov. McDonald, in an obituary article writ- 
ten by himself concerning my grandfather, speaking 
of the bank, says: "He (Dr. Fort) found it under 
protest for a large debt and when he retired from it 
in the last of 1843 or the first of 1844 he left it in full 
credit and its notes at par everywhere except in Sa- 
vannah and Augusta, in which cities they continued 
to be at a small discount, but a short time." 

One of the most important epochs in my grand- 
father's life was that during which he promoted the 
movement to build the great State road of Georgia 
(the Western & Atlantic). As early as 1825, before 
there was a railroad in the United States, he intro- 
duced in the Legislature a " bill to be entitled an act 
to lay out a central canal or railway through the 
State." This contemplated a junction by railway or 
canal of the waters of the Tennessee and of the Sa- 



vannah. He was one of the pioneers in urging this 

Gov. William Schley, who was elected in 1836, was 
a great friend of my grandfather. It i§ said that he 
himself had been offered the nomination for governor 
and had declined. Indeed, afterwards he was virtu- 
ally offered election to the United States Senate. He 
could accept neither of these offices because of finan- 
- cial difficulties at that period. Under Gov. Schley, no 
doubt urged by my grandfather, his friend, the first 
message urging the construction of the Western & 
Atlantic railway was sent to the Legislature. 

The act authorizing its construction was approved 
December 31, 1836, and the State of Georgia spent 
$3,680,000 in completing it between Atlanta and Chat- 
tanooga. It now pays the State $400,000 a year and 
is a monument to the far-seeing statesmanship that 
made it possible. But for the Central Bank of Geor- 
gia then under my grandfather's management, which 
advanced the money, it might not have been built. 
Seeing the future of Ross Landing, which was the ter- 
minus of this railroad, my grandfather in 1838, nearly 
a year before it became Chattanooga, invested largely 
there, to the interest of his descendants. 

His position as president of the Central Bank was 
practically that of the controller of the finances of the 
State. About this time South Carolina was consider- 
ing the construction by that State of the Blue Ridge 
railroad. In urging this policy a prominent man of 
that State called attention to the experience of Geor- 
gia and speaking of my grandfather's part said : 

"At this period all eyes turned to this Washington 
of probity and comprehensiveness of view (Dr. Fort). 
And when it is remembered that for years he led the 
Democracy as one man it can easily be conceived the 
exultation of the engineer department when it found 
him prepared to take the lead in the development of 


Southern resources and Western inter-communication 
as a central branch." It seems that these compari- 
sons with Washington were not unusual. The "Star 
of San Marneo," a Democratic paper, in urging my 
grandfather as a candidate for Governor, also com- 
pared him to the father of our country. For some 
time he owned an interest in the "Federal Union," 
the Democratic organ at Milledgeville, Hud while not 
nominally the editor was really its directing spirit. 
"He placed the organ of his party on a pedestal 
whence his oracles were reverenced and obeyed by 
the masses," wrote Col. David C. Campbell, a succeed- 
ing editor. 

He was trustee of the lunatic asylum, whose con- 
struction was largely due to his efforts, and for many 
years physician at the penitentiary. But for the fin- 
ancial losses my grandfather sustained during the 
panic of 1837 there is little doubt that he would have 
again been compelled, by pressure of the people and 
his natural abilities to enter public life. He could 
have held almost any position he might have desired. 
But after resigning from the Central Bank in 1844 he 
retired to private life. While of a modest and unob- 
trusive disposition he was trusted by the leaders of 
his party and of the State and respected as one of its 
most eminent men. Although rarely a speaker he 
was forceful and eloquent when he did speak. For 
many years he was called on to preside at every State 
democratic convention. 

He died before the Civil war came on, but there is 
little question, from the sentiment expressed in his 
speech on the Cumberland road, and at other times, 
that he would not have been in sympathy with the 
secession movement. Like Bell, Stephens and other 
Southern leaders, who opposed secession, however, 
there is no doubt that had he been living he would 
have gone with his State, which he loved with patri- 


otic devotion. My uncle, Col. Tomlinson Fort, writes 
me that he knew my grandfather opposed the plat- 
form of "states rights" democracy on which Chas. J. 
McDonald was a candidate for governor against How- 
ell Cobb in 1851, although he voted for him on per- 
sonal grounds. 

Thus was rounded out the full life of my grand- 

Any less indomitable will would have been broken 
by the great difficulties constantly impeding his foot- 
steps, A weaker character would have been content 
with achievment in any one of his multifarious occu- 
pations. The most successful physician in all middle 
Georgia, to most men that would have been enough. 
But his incii-ive mind grazed eagerly on all pastures 
of learning and his energetic disposition sought other 
avenues of effort. The knowledge he acquired on 
almost every subject was systematically stored in his 

When summoned by an accurate memory it was 
subjected to the analysis of a perfect reason. 

Physician, statesman, publicist, in all preeminent. 
He not only ameliorated the condition of the physical 
man, but by his wise counsel and leadership in 
national and state government and in public affairs 
bettered the status of the masses of her people and 
made the pursuit of happiness in this community less 

Just as his shrewd sire had been among the first 
to recognize the value of the cotton gin and use it, so, 
he foresaw the wonderful industrial revolution which 
steam transportation would bring and led the move- 
ment which linked his State with the West, and made 
Georgia the "Empire State of the South." 

At the same time he was also naturalist, litera- 
teur, master of finance, humanitarian and philan- 
thropist. The versatility of Georgia's Dr. Fort was 


not unlike that of Pennsylvania's Dr. Franklin, just 
as his statesmanship and probity have been compared 
■with the father of our country. 

His decendants may well study his character and 
attainments and emulate his example. 






IN THE CIVIL WAR 1864-65. 

[By John Porter Fort.] 

In the month of December, 1864, the First Georgia 
Regulars, of the Confederate States Army, were en- 
camped on Whitemarsh Island near the mouth of the 
Savannah river. The regiment was considered upon 
picket duty. A portion of the command was at all 
times patrolling the borders of the Island facing the 
sea, both night and day with a few scouts upon Wil- 
mington Island, directly in front of Whitemarsh 
Island. Our duties were not arduous and our camp 
was in a pleasant situation about ten miles from the 
city of Savannah. 

While thus encamped negotiatious were in pro- 
gress by which the authorities of the Confederate 
States agreed to deliver to the United States authori- 
ties at the mouth of the Savannah river a large num- 
ber of Federal prisoners from Andersonville. These 
prisoners were delivered as sick men and without the 
Confederate Government receiving any equivalent for 
them. The United States Government had refused 
most positively to make any exchange of prisoners 
and it was with great difficulty that it was induced to 
consent to accept these supposed to be sick men. 
The Confederate States had to feed them and conse- 
quently desired to get rid of them. I saw these pris- 
oners several thousand in number, before they em- 
barked in some old boats and barges to float a few 
miles down the Savannah river to the transports pre- 
pared by the United States to receive them. There 
were few or no sick men among them, they were well 


dressed and fully as well fed as were our troops in the 
field and taken care of as well as the Confederacy did 
its own men. Their sickness was a sham and the 
fraud was acquiesced in by the Confederate authori- 
ties in order to force their government to take them 
in their lines, as all hope for an exchange of prisoners 
had been abandoned. I was on the point at White- 
marsh Island when these barges passed, loaded with 
the human freight of from six to eight thousand pris- 
oners. When the point was turned and these prison- 
ers came in full view of their government transports 
at anchor waiting for them, only a short distance off 
with the United States Hag flying at their mast heads, 
a great shout of rejoicing rent the air that I will ever 
remember. We were glad to be rid of our parting 
guests and their joy at leaving us expressed itself in 
huzzas of happiness. While thus in camp we received 
news every day of the march of General W. T. Sher- 
man's army into the interior of the State of Georgia. 
We were all concerned for our homes and our loved 
ones but remained steady at the posts assigned us. 

About the middle of December there came to re- 
lieve us a small command of reserves, boys between 
fifteen and seventeen and old men over sixty. We 
were ordered to march through Savannah and take 
our positions upon a line of battle, protecting Savan- 
nah upon the north. It seemed that the objective 
point of General Sherman's army was the city of Sa- 
vannah. We soon formed our part of the line and 
assisted to complete the inferior breastworks that we 
occupied. We were scarcely well in position before 
we were confronted by large masses of troops of all 
arms, comprising Sherman's entire army. Our force 
was under the command of General W. J. Hardee and 
comprised from six to eight thousand men. General 
Sherman's army was composed of about eighty thous- 
and men, with an immense following of slaves and 


what were termed "bummers," these consisted of 
irregular cavalry and scouts. 

General Sherman was a very cautious commander. 
On seeing our fortifications he dug an entrenched line 
opposite ours and commenced skirmishing at long 
range with our picket line. The First Georgia Regu- 
lars consisted at this time of about two hundred and 
fifty men. It was commanded by Colonel R. A. 
Wayne, a cool, brave, fearless ofiicer. While in camp 
he was often brusque in his manners and dictatorial 
in his deportment, but every man and officer had un- 
limited confidence in him in time of danger, he had 
a natural aptitude for war, there was no better regi- 
mental commander in battle. I was on duty as adju- 
tant of the regiment. After General Sherman had 
formed his lines of battle in our front, he sent in a 
flag of truce demanding the surrender of our army 
and the city, saying that if it was not done he could 
not be responsible for the acts of his troops against a 
city that had done so much to aid the Confederate 
Government. General Hardee in reply refused to 
surrender the army or the city but ended his commu- 
nication by requesting General Sherman to be gov- 
erned by the rules of civilized war in the event of the 
capture of the city. I never liked General Hardee's 
reply, he evidently felt the inefficiency of his com- 
mand to cope with General Sherman's great army, 
and while this was doubtless true, it was bad policy to 
exhibit such an apprehension. With his usual policy 
General Sherman kept a force double our number 
entrenched in front of our lines, and then commenced 
to move a large body of troops through the swamp 
lands on our right and left, where we had not sufficient 
force to protect with a strong picket. In confronting 
General Sherman's army for the first time I was 
struck with the habit of early rising that seemed to 
be prevalent in that portion of his army. The Federal 



Taken during the Civil War tS6l-65. 


Surgeon 28tli Georgia Regiment, 


2nd Lieut. Co. K 1st Georgia Regulars. Capt. Co. L 1st Georgia Regulars 


^Astor, Lc-MOK. > 



bugles sounded the first call all along their lines 
before dawn and at the earliest dawn reveille, when 
every soldier was expected to be in line to answer to 
his name. These bugle calls were a few minutes 
earlier than our reveille, while we used a small drum 
instead of a bugle. We all felt the hazard of our 
position. The rumor came along the line that we 
were to be surrendered prisoners of war, we heard 
this with pallid cheeks and were prepared to resist to 
the utmost. When these large bodies of troops were 
commencing the move upon our rear, it was said that 
such a course was contemplated. If my memory is 
not at fault, General Gustavus W. Smith was in Sa- 
vannah at this time. He was a capable engineer, and 
with the greatest exertion at the very last moment 
placed a bridge of pontoons across the Savannah river 
at the wharf in the city for the retreat of the army. 
This was upon the evening of the twenty-second of 
December, 1864. As soon as it was well dark our 
camp fires were left burning and our entire army 
withdrew from our entrenchments, marched into Sa- 
vannah and without serious disturbance crossed the 
river upon the pontoon bridge. I will never forget the 
event. Our regiment arrived at the bridge about 
midnight, along the wharves and principal streets 
leading to the bridge there were large bonfires burn- 
ing. The fires lit up the wide, yellow river and 
burned brightly along the dykes and dams opposite 
the city, acting as a guide to the army for some miles 
before a place suitable for a camp could be obtained. 
The streets were full of negroes, affrighted women 
and children and citizens whispering one to another 
"the Yankees, the Yankees are coming." As soon as 
we received orders to retreat I sent the cook of our 
mess, an old negro named "Chance," to get us some- 
thing to eat and meet us at the bridge. Savannah 
was Chance's home, he promised to be faithful and it 


had been agreed that he should remain there. Just 
before arriving at the bridge we passed a store, where 
barrels of liquor were being rolled out in the streets 
and burst open with axes I thought I recognized 
Chance in the excited throng. Poor old Chance, his 
love for the "ardent" was well known, to see so much 
liquor wasted was more than he could endure, he 
failed to meet us at the bridge and the commissaries 
that we expected were never received. I never heard 
from Chance afterwards, he was a good cook, and 
when not over tempted a faithful servant. 

The scene of our army crossing the Savannah river 
at midnight, with the aid of bonfires to prevent the 
horses and men from marching into the river and off 
the dykes into the water surrounding them, pre- 
sented a panorama that I will always remember. The 
enemy anticipated some movement of this kind and 
were upon their arms in readiness for any emergency. 
General Sherman with his usual cautious tactics re- 
fused or feared to attack us, although by a bold dash 
he could have taken the bridge and captured our 
small army. The sun was barely above the horizon 
when I looked back over the wide rice fields from the 
Carolina side and saw the United States flag floating 
above the city hall at Savannah. 

Our regiment lost two or three men wounded in 
the trenches in front of Savannah. I saw Dr. Cherry 
our surgeon, amputating the leg of one of our wounded 
who was shot through the knee. These men were 
wounded by sharp-shooters who kept a continual fire 
along our lines, our own sharp-shooters claimed to 
have repaid these losses with interest. However 
claims by soldiers of individual long shots should 
generally be taken with much allowance. A shot very 
near a man or slightly wounding him will often make 
him act in such a manner that it will appear from a 
distance as if he were fatally shot. With the excep- 


tion of two or three men who failed to cross the river 
with us, we lost none. One of these men was named 
McGowan of Company "K," he had a sweetheart in 
the city and refused to leave her. General Sherman 
and his army rejoiced greatly over the taking of 
Savannah. He sent a dispatch to Washington that he 
had captured the city and with it twenty-six thousand 
bales of cotton, making a present of the cotton to the 
government at Washington. This cotton was worth 
at the time seventy or eighty cents a pound and so 
represented eight or nine millions of dollars, it was 
ordered to be turned over to a person named Draper 
for the United States government, under the captured 
and abandoned property act. From the information 
that I afterwards obtained nothing ever equaled the 
robbery and plunder of the United States in regard to 
this cotton. Every vessel that could be obtained from 
the fleet off Charleston and Savannah was brought 
into requisition upon which to load the cotton, it be- 
longed mostly to private parties. It was branded 
with the government brand and then changed, put 
upon different vessels and in the end the government 
received only a portion of it. Who participated in 
this saturnalia of the seizure, claiming and selling of 
this cotton will never be known, neither was anyone 
ever called to a strict account for it. 

To return to our little regiment upon the soil of 
South Carolina. It was very cold on the night we 
marched across the Savannah river, similar to the cold 
of February 1899, and two or three days after there 
came over the country a wintry blast equal to any 
that I recollect ever to have experienced. I was rather 
poorly clad and had but one double blanket, much 
the worse for wear. I recollect our camp fires were 
near a pond of water of some size and I slept at inter- 
vals upon its border, in the morning the pond was 
frozen over so thick that I had to break a hole in the 


ice to fill my canteen. During this memorable night 
I fell asleep for a few minutes in a position with my 
head much lower than my body. The icy wind blow- 
ing over the frozen pond caused the end of my nose 
to be frost bitten, the effects of which I felt seriously 
at the time and for years afterwards and I may say at 
certain times up to this day. 

After some weeks spent in the occupancy of Sa- 
vannah and shipping away the cotton and thousands 
of different articles of plunder collected by the army 
in their march through Georgia, General Sherman 
moved his army upon the coast of South Carolina and 
commenced his memorable march through that com- 
monwealth. This movement compelled us to abandon 
Charleston and all positions near the coast of South 
Carolina. Our army when we left Savannah, was 
composed of about eight thousand men of all arras, 
mostly what were known as "reserves" and militia 
with but very few regular troops, of which our regi- 
ment formed a part. It appeared to be our plan to 
defend various positions along and near the coast 
where it was expected a landing would be made. We 
were picketed near Pocataligo along the tide water 
and opposite to us were negro troops. The pickets of 
the two armies were close together, a narrow stream 
of water separating them. By agreement we refused to 
fire upon each other, as much useless execution might 
have been done by both sides. I know that I was ex- 
posed at short range to the Federal pickets, and could 
easily have been shot, as they also might have been. 

General Sherman's great army landed at Fort 
Royal to commence a march through the State. He 
was re-enforced by the Federal troops that confronted 
Charleston and the coasts of South Carolina. The 
trail of this mighty host was as a great fire and the 
State was given to the wind of desolation. These acts 
of vandalism accomplished nothing except to satisfy a 


lodged hate of the invading host to the State and peo- 
ple of South Carolina and embitter the Southern peo- 

Pillars of smoke arising from barns and peaceful 
dwellings gave us notice that Sherman's army had 
commenced its forward march. The confusion in our 
front was extreme among the rural inhabitants. The 
great majority of the planters with their families 
came into our lines followed by many of their slaves. 
Our army assembled near where the Charleston and 
Savannah railroad crossed the Salkakatchee river and 
V7ith us were the troops that had held the coast de- 
fences. This combined force amounted to ten or 
twelve thousand men. 

Our regiment was attached to two other commands, 
a regiment of Georgia reserves together with a battal- 
lion, and was put under the command of Colonel John 
0. Ficer, a Mississippian who had lost an arm in the 
service. This brigade which was called Ficer's Brig- 
ade, never amounted to more than six or seven hun- 
dred men. Our entire force was under the command 
of General W. J. Hardee, we were a part of a division 
commanded by General LaFayette McLaws. 

It is said that General Sherman made the remark 
that the Confederacy to recruit their army "was rob- 
bing the cradle and the grave." I think it not inap- 
propriate to relate here the well remembered story of 
a regiment of Georgia reserves attached to our brig- 
ade. It illustrates the patriotism of our people and 
the expiring efforts of the Confederate Government 
to sustain the cause. 

The Second Georgia reserves crossed the Savannah 
river with our army on the night of the twenty-second 
of December. They were composed of boys from 
fourteen to sixteen years of age and old men over 
sixty, there were but few old men, probably not over 
twenty. The limit of old age may have been sixty- 


five, they were nearly all boys. This regiment was 
under the command of an old man named Simmons, 
he was large and very stout. I recollect his ridicu- 
lous figure upon horseback, he only attempted one 
day's march when he was permanently laid up for 
repairs. This regiment of boys when drawn up on 
dress parade the morning after we left Savannah, 
were three hundred and fifty in number. They were 
nearly all physically unable to carry their muskets or 
otherwise stand the hardships of the campaign they 
were to be called upon to endure. In the arduous 
marches with us none of the boys deserted, for they 
were moved by the purest patriotic impulse. My 
sympathies were often enlisted in beholding these 
young patriots attempting to keep up in our marches 
in front of Sherman's army. They gradually fell by 
the wayside, it required the nerve and muscle of a 
man to endure a campaign in our army, with our 
limited quartermaster and commissary supplies. I 
recollect many pathetic instances of these boys in 
their efi'orts to keep up in our arduous march across 
the Carolinas. 

The troops in this campaign carried all their camp 
implements with them, every soldier had his haver- 
sack with from one to two days rations in it and his 
arms and ammunition. I always carried an ax, bed- 
ding for myself and messmate, whereas he carried a 
cooking utensil and a small tent fly. These boys had 
nearly all been tenderly reared and were too young 
to know or to care for themselves, which was so abso- 
lutely essential in such a campaign, in the cold winter 
season in our marches through the swamps and fields. 
I cannot refrain from mentioning one incident. It was 
a very cold, rainy night and our brigade was en- 
camped in a swamp. There are but few swamp trees 
from which a temporary fire can be made under such 
conditions, it was with difficulty we found a tree 


called iron wood and after making a small fire we 
laid down beside it to sleep as only a weary soldier 
can. About midnight I felt a pressure as of some one 
at my feet, I partly arose to order the intruder away. 
It was against a well recognized rule for one soldier 
to trespass upon a camp fire not his own. I beheld a 
youth, a boy, almost a child, bending over the fire 
with his hands stretched toward the flickering blaze, 
his limbs trembling with cold and exhaustion. His 
belt and his cartridge box was tied around his neck, 
his face indicating the want of water for many days, 
he presented an appearance of extreme wretchedness. 
The words of the order died upon my lips as I looked 
with commiseration upon this tender child that the 
cruel situation had caused to take up arms in defense 
of his home. I recognized him as some mother's dar- 
ling and refrained from speaking, knowing well that 
the next day the Federal cavalry under Kilpatrick 
would pick him up by the wayside, a victim of Civil 
war, his end a hospital or death. 

When this regiment arrived at Aversborro and 
were drawn up in line of battle to participate in their 
first engagement, there were left of them but thirty- 
nine all-told. From a regiment of three hundred and 
fifty they had been reduced by the hardships of the 
service, to that small number without losing one in 
\ battle. All the remainder with but few exceptions 
were captured I suppose, by the army before which 
we were retreating. It was on seeing these boys and 
some grey haired men among his captives that Gen- 
eral Sherman is said to have made the before-quoted 

My own mess was comprised at this time of my 
brother Tom, who was a captain in the regiment, 
Lieutenant Augustus Rutherford and Lieutenant 
Cecil Berrien. My good mother of blessed memory, 
sent to my brother and myself a negro boy to wait on 


US by the name of Willis Allston. He was a son of 
our old nurse Nancy and had the genuine negro 
characteristics, but was a poor cook. We had but one 
brigade wagon called the "skillet wagon," Willis kept 
with this wagon and was supposed to get up what 
rations he could, and find us when these had been 
prepared. The wagons kept so well in front of us 
that often for a day or so we would not see the said 
Willis Allston. The companies of our regiment were 
all small, comprising only from fifteen to twenty men 
each, except Company "L" ray brother Tom's com- 
pany which numbered about forty or fifty men. Our 
entire regimental force in commencing this retreat 
was something over two hundred men. All of the 
command was more or less enfeebled by malarial 
fevers because of bad water and location during the 
past summer while in front of Savannah. We were 
unable to obtain quinine, the only remedy known for 
malaria, as its importation into our lines had been 
forbidden by the Federal authorities. This refusal of 
medicine to the sick illustrated the bitterness of feel- 
ing engendered by this Civil war. The campaign 
through South Carolina was arduous in the extreme. 
Our regiment formed during nearly all the campaign 
the rear guard of the army. We had a small skirmish 
with the enemy at a place on the Salkakatchee river 
called Broxton's bridge and a few men were wounded 
at long range across this bridge that we defended for 
a day or so. 

Our marching and counter marching taxed the 
endurance of which any troops were capable, and some 
of our best soldiers gave out. They were exhausted 
by reason of poor food, poor supplies and a summer 
encampment in a malarial region. Some few were 
captured, others escaped in the swamps and finally 
arrived at Augusta, Georgia. We probably lost one- 
fourth of our command before we arrived near the 



north-western border of South Carolina. Before 
arriving at Cheraw we may have marched about three 
hundred miles, in a direct line from Savannah to 
Cheraw, South Carolina, our final destination, was 
about one hundred and seventy-five miles. We 
passed below Columbia, but the main body of General 
Sherman's army took a direct route for South Caro- 
lina's capital with the avowed purpose of its destruc- 
tion. Their intention was accomplished, and the 
statement years afterwards by General Sherman that 
the Confederate cavalry had started the fire that 
burned a portion of the city was false. I have con- 
versed with men who were boys at the time, who saw 
soldiers detailed with torches upon their work of de- 
struction. That General Sherman in after years was 
ashamed of such a wanton destruction of a defense- 
less city, was natural, but that the act was deliber- 
ately done is true. There were so many columns of 
smoke continually arising in our rear, that I have no 
distinct recollection of seeing the smoke from Colum- 
bia, I hardly think we passed near enough to see it 

During this continuous retreat we were accompa- 
nied by detached bodies of cavalry, generally in 
squads of from twenty to thirty. They were called 
Wheeler's cavalry and seemed to be in no definite 
organization and could not have comprised more than 
two or three hundred men in all. Whenever they 
came near us our infantry men jeered them in such 
an unsparing manner that they avoided us as far as 
possible. I had an opportunity to speak to one of the 
members of this cavalry command and he said to me, 
that whatever opinion the other portion of the army 
might have of Wheeler's cavalry, that his command 
trusted Joe Wheeler. During our Civil war a brave 
infantry soldier with a rifle or musket in his hand, 
felt superior in battle to a soldier upon horseback. 


He realized the advantage of his position and aim in 
an ordinary field of battle, and the inclination of in- 
fantry soldiers was at all times to speak in disrespect 
of the cavalry. 

Our retreat was nearly continuous from Pocataligo 
to Chesterfield, a few miles from Cheraw in the north- 
west part of South Carolina, upon the borders of 
North Carolina. During this entire retreat I was 
struck with the timidity of Kilpatrick's Federal cav- 
alry. He had a force of mounted men larger than 
our entire army, and by the display of ordinary cour- 
age his command might have kept our little army at 
bay until the Federal infantry arrived and over- 
whelmed us. Whenever we halted with a few hundred 
men and presented a front, his cavalry became aware 
that they were confronted by infantry, and they at 
once halted to await an infantry support. We became 
very tired of retreating and often did I hear the men 
of the regiment express a desire that Kilpatrick's cav- 
alry would charge us, but they never did. If they 
had, I do not know how our little rear guard could 
have withstood those great hosts. 

General N. B. Forrest had illustrated that the 
proper way to fight cavalry was to put the trooper on 
foot. Our men as a rule were good marksmen, they 
were armed nearly altogether with long Enfield rifles, 
which were loaded from the muzzle with a greased 
cartridge and an oblong ounce ball, a gun which held 
up for two hundred yards or more. We arrived at 
Chesterfield where we formed strong picket lines on 
the roads leading to Cheraw upon the Great Pee Dee 
river. Many incidents, both pathetic and amusing, 
occurred during this campaign. 

One morning while at Pocataligo brother Tomlin- 
son came into camp from outpost duty very hungry 
and asked Willis Alston the cook, for something to 
eat. We had drawn the night before, some flour, and 


Willis in mixing it in the dark, had put in so much 
water as to make it of the consistency of glue, which 
when baked in the ashes formed a dark, indigestible 
compound, this was given to brother Tomlinson for his 
breakfast, but he was unable to eat it. He called for 
Willis and demanded that he should eat the mixture, 
which Willis refused to do. Brother Tomlinson, taking 
counsel in his hunger and wrath, drew his sword, 
told Willis that he had to eat it or he would cut his 
head off. The aforesaid Willis, trembling and in dire 
extremity, said " Mos Tom., you may kill me but I 
can't eat that bread." Suffice it to say that the head 
of Willis was not cut off, neither did he eat that so- 
called bread. It appeared to be a serious matter at 
the time, but in that controversy between the Caucas- 
sian and the negro, the negro or more properly speak- 
ing the bread, triumphed. 

While on picket duty near Chesterfield three Fed- 
eral foragers or " bummers," as they were called, came 
suddenly upon one of our picket posts of three men 
before they were aware of it. One of them was 
mounted upon a farm horse, and was encumbered 
with so much plunder that he could not get hold of 
his gun. While attempting to do so Sergeant Bruce 
of Company " I " shot him from the horse and the 
other two men surrendered and came across the little 
stream in front of the picket post. I was near at hand 
riding along our picket lines. The first question I 
asked the prisoners was as to what command they be- 
longed. They spoke broken English and informed 
me that they belonged to a Pennsylvania regiment of 
Blair's Corps. That which struck me with more force 
was the reply from one of them that a day or so be- 
fore he heard one of the officers say there were about 
eight hundred men for duty in his regiment, and 
seventy-six men in his company for duty at the last 
roll call, he did not know the size of General Blair's 


Corps, but heard that it was seventeen thousand men. 

When I thourjht of our small regiments of less than 
two hundred men, brigades less than four hundred, 
and then this Corps of General Blair's which was but 
a small part of General Sherman's army, and as large 
as our entire force in Carolina, 1 felt my heart sink- 
ing within me. I heard a large force in front of us 
and time was of such moment that I refused to allow 
one of the pickets to cross the small stream to inspect 
the dead or wounded man or more probably his plun- 
der. It was but a very short time before a large com- 
mand appeared up the road and our pickets withdrew. 
I hurriedly sent the two prisoners to be reported to 
Col. Wayne, we had no means to care for them and I 
do not know what became of them. They were 
ignorant foreigners and knew about as much of what 
they were fighting for as an ox, but were ready to 
kill, plunder and burn as long as they were paid and 
fed. Success in war depends upon resources which 
are represented by money. Our indignation was but 
natural when we beheld regiments and brigades of our 
negro slaves, armed by the United States Government 
in array against us, together with many regiments of 
foreigners who could not speak our language. But 
war is barbarism, it knows no law and should not ex- 
ist among civilized people. 

The officers and soldiers in our army were true and 
tried men and were ready at all times and could be 
relied upon to accomplish as much as could be done 
by any equal number of men, maintaining their po- 
sition in the ranks without pay or the expectation of 
reward. They understood the issues of the contest 
and were moved by a true patriotic impulse that 
called them to defend their homes from fire and sword. 

I will forbear giving an account of atrocities com- 
mitted by Sherman's men in South Carolina that came 
to my knowledge through reports of scouts and others. 


At this time it is diflScult to understand the bitter 
feeling engendered between the opposing forces by 
the horrors of this Civil war. It is over and is but a 
memory, God grant that Civil war may never be wit- 
nessed in our country again. 

It appeared from the caution observed by the Fed- 
eral commanders in approaching this section of Caro- 
lina that they anticipated a battle, they certainly 
could not have been fully aware of the inferiority of 
our force. Cheraw was a town upon the banks of the 
Great Pee Dee river in which our army had large 
stores of commissary supplies and ammunition. It 
seemed to be our purpose to hold it as long as possi- 
ble, that we might be able to move away supplies into 
North Carolina where General Joseph E. Johnston 
was trying to organize an army, and we were expected 
to move in that direction to join his forces. 

The morning after our capture of the two prison- 
ers, we moved upon Cheraw and were ordered to hold 
the town until a cavalry command under General 
Taliaferro could be withdrawn and cross the river in 
our rear. In giving an account of this action I will 
do so under the name of the battle of Cheraw. 

At this time the First Georgia Regulars were under 
the command of Col. Wayne. One other field officer 
was with the command, Lieutenant-Colonel Miller 
Grieve, who was upon the sick list and was trans- 
ported with our wagons. There were ten companies 
comprising a total of one hundred and thirty men, 
with an average of not more than one commissioned 
officer to each company. I had been appointed some 
time before as acting adjutant, Colonel Wayne and 
myself were the only officers mounted. Our regiment 
was halted about ten o'clock in the morning on the 
outskirts of Cheraw upon a position taken with the 
impediment of an old railroad cut in the rear for the 

reason that we were protected by a thicket of small 


trees that concealed our force and movements. The 
regiment was deployed as skirmishers ten paces apart, 
so that our front would extend as far as possible. 
Orders were issued to assemble upon the center only 
after being driven in, and to hold the lines as long as 
possible. The officer in charge of this movement was 
General Butler, who had lost a leg in the war, he was 
then a young man and had with him a staff of three 
or four mounted men. My position was by the side 
of Colonel Wayne who was riding along the lines with 
General Butler and staff. We had scarcely formed 
when a messenger came in on horseback in great 
haste, informing General Butler that General Talia- 
ferro had sent him word that he was nearly sur- 
rounded and out of ammunition. I was struck with 
General Butler's calmness as he ordered one of his 
staff to ride and tell General Taliaferro to come 
through with his sabers and by no means to surren- 
der. The brave soldier unslung his carbine and 
turned his horse to execute the dangerous mission. 
He had just begun to ride forward when up the road 
about a hundred yards distant appeared the front of 
a body of cavalry coming full speed down upon us. 
We at first felt assured that they were Federal cav- 
alry and were not undeceived until they were quite 
near us, it proved to be General Taliaferro's cavalry 
command of probably two hundred. They came thun- 
dering in our rear down the road about one hundred 
yards or so where there was a crossing, at the old 
railroad cut and were soon going over the river bridge 
about half a mile in our rear. I ordered one of the 
skirmishers that I knew to be a cool, brave man to go 
forward from our thicket of pines and report to me 
what he saw. He returned in a few minutes, saying 
that he counted thirteen flags and long lines of in- 
fantry and artillery moving forward upon us. The 
name of this brave man was Musgrove, his fate was a 


sad one. A few days after the war was over he killed 
a Federal soldier and was hung by order of a drum- 
head court martial in the streets of Macon, Georgia. 
He was noted for his coolness and courage. The fire 
of our skirmishers was commencing to be continuous, 
we were slowly retreating and were entirely without 
support in our rear. Colonel Wayne could not bear 
to abandon and lose his bay mare, he saw that the 
railroad cut was too high and precipitous to cross on 
horseback and ordered me to ride quickly along the 
line, ordering all to assemble on the center and across 
the railroad cut. He turned to my brother Tomlinson, 
the senior captain in charge of the skirmish line, and 
ordered him to take charge of the regiment and lead 
it to the bridge across the river. 

In great danger of being captured Colonel Wayne 
rode swiftly to the railroad crossing to gain it before 
the enemy arrived. A heavy skirmish line of the 
enemy was very close to us advancing, and behind it 
a very short distance, long lines of battle. I heard 
the loud voice of brother Tom. ordering the men to 
assemble upon the center in rear of the railroad cut. 
The small pine grove concealing our regiment, alone 
prevented us from being run over by such a superior 
force so close at hand. Our men held their positions 
and fired upon the advancing enemy as if we had a 
strong force in support. All the men rose up as I 
rode along the line giving the order, except four or 
five on the extreme right, among whom^ was Lieuten- 
ant Fred Palmer. I have been informed since the 
war by Lieutenant Palmer that they surrendered after 
a bloody little battle where he was surrounded and 
his men wounded. Having delivered my orders and see- 
ing them being executed I thought it my duty to fol- 
low my commanding officer. Appreciating the danger 
and fearing that the enemy had arrived at the cross- 
ing before me, I put spurs to my brave cream colored 


horse and beat the Federal skirmishers to the crossing 
a few yards. I suddenly appeared in the open, out of 
the thicket in front of them, two or three of the Fed- 
eral soldiers threw up their guns and fired at me. As 
1 rode down the open highway a portion of this skir- 
mish line had fine target practice at me, but they 
were poor marksmen. A bullet cut through my hair 
(or I always thought so), one cut the tin cup from my 
haversack, one grazed my horse and caused him to so 
increase his speed that he stumbled, fell to his knees 
but soon recovered, and I rejoined Colonel Wayne 
and the regiment in the streets cf Cheraw. As soon 
as the Federals saw how small was our force, they 
pressed forward with a battery of artillery on their 
heavy line of skirmishers to overtake and capture us, 
but this was not so easy as it appeared. Captain Fort 
then commanding the regiment, had detailed Lieuten- 
ant Rutherford with two companies of about twenty- 
five men to turn and fire as often as possible at our 
pursuers which would cause a temporary halt. As we 
emerged into an open street near the bridge, a shell 
or so was thrown from a battery knocking down three 
or four of our men and either wounding or killing 
Sergeant Spriggs of Company "L." I saw him in 
front of a little store leaning against a post, with blood 
flowing from his head. Both sides were now very 
tired, neither having had time to stop and reload 
their guns. We were nearing the bridge and the 
skirmish line of the enemy was not more than fifty 
yards behind us. This bridge was a covered structure 
and was saturated with rosin and turpentine and an 
officer of artillery was detailed to fire it at the proper 
time, he stood ready with torch in hand. The entire 
army had crossed except our regiment, the officer in 
charge of the bridge saw and understood the situation. 
He beheld our little regiment with its battle scarred 
flag coming down the street and a few yards behind 


them a skirmish line of the enemy. As we set foot 
upon the bridge the fire was lighted, and I heard one 
of the Federals immediately behind us cry out "oh, 
boys don't burn the bridge, we want to go across." 
The bridge was filled with smoke, I could not see in 
front of my horse but urged him forward and I can 
safely say that the bridge was ablaze a few seconds 
after I crossed. Quite a force of Federals came up 
and seemed to try to put out the fire, but the flames 
soon rose high above the structure in an incredibly 
short space of time. The river was not over seventy- 
five yards wide and was bounded by a bluff upon 
which was situated Cheraw and opposite a wide bot- 
tom of cultivated fields near half a mile wide. Gen- 
eral Hardee was with his staff across this wide clear- 
ing, and fearing that the bridge might not be destroyed 
he sent an order that our regiment remain there until 
it was consumed. When this order came we were 
about one hundred yards from the bridge utterly 
wearied, thinking that our work was accomplished. 
I never saw a better exhibition of discipline and cour- 
age than was here given by our tired men, they turned 
to face an enemy of ten times their number, where 
they had no protection and only a narrow river sepa- 
rating them. Very fortunately there was a natural 
entrenchment along the river bank into which we 
filed, protecting us fully from the enemy's fire across 
the river. In turning to march to the river Colonel 
Wayne and myself dismounted, giving our horses to a 
boy that followed the regiment acting as orderly, 
whose name was Busby, he carried them safely to our 
camp that night. If we had ridden up the small bluff 
that protected us as we started to do, one hundred 
balls would have been fired at us on the instant, now 
our situation was changed. This heavy line of skir- 
mishers was upon the open river bank, and our men 
who had been so long pursued, were protected in a 


ravine from which we exposed only our heads when 
we shot, the river was between us, the bridge burning 
beautifully and we now had our revenge. The blue- 
coats commenced falling upon the open river bank, 
they quickly comprehended their situation and began 
to retreat up the bluff, a few remained behind some 
large trees, but soon they commenced to fall one by 
one. A red headed soldier named Farmer of Com- 
pany " 0" claimed to have killed four men in four 
shots before they retreated. While in this ravine 
there was near me a soldier named Pritchard of Com- 
pany "C," who loaded his rifle and handed it to me 
and I had a couple of shots at these soldiers upon the 
river bank, in return for having been myself made a 
target of, I had but little doubt of the effectiveness of 
one of my shots. Some of these skirmishers before 
their retreat indulged in much swearing, but we an- 
swered with balls that left many of them upon the 
water's edge. At last we could take some revenge 
upon our pursuers. The tide of affairs soon turned, a 
battery was brought forward on the bluff and a shell- 
ing was opened upon us, a number of guns were 
turned upon our regiment. About the first shell that 
was thrown burst near me and a large piece of a ten- 
pound parrot shell nearly spent struck me in the chest, 
knocking me breathless, but I soon recovered and we 
marched down the ravine into the woods, escaping in 
detached parties across the wide plain. I feel assured 
that if we had remained there a few moments longer 
we would have been subjected to such a fire of shells 
as would have left few of us alive. When we emerged 
from the ravine and swamp beyond in parties of one 
and two we were a target for their rifled cannon, but 
the distance was probably half a mile. I saw one man 
killed by one of these long shots, having his head shot 
off, he was I think one of the bridge guards and did 
not belong to our regiment. They were solid shot I 


think, as they did not seem to burst and this was the 
only effective one from one hundred or more that I 
noticed. As I went out several cannon balls struck 
near, that I suppose were aimed at me, the distance 
being from a fourth to a half a mile. On writing out 
my report to the Colonel I found that our casualties 
amounted to thirty, one officer and four men captured, 
three or four killed and the balance wounded, which 
was about one-fourth of our number. Sergeant Bruce 
of Company "I" was so wounded as to have necessi- 
tated the amputation of his leg, and Sergeant Spriggs 
of Company "L" was supposed to have been killed. I 
do not recollect the name of any other man or officer 
that was killed or wounded. This retreat and battle 
consisting of a running fight, taxed to the utmost the 
endurance of every one. 

The command had distinguished itself in the re- 
treat while commanded by my brother Captain Fort, 
whose firmness while giving orders gave confidence to 
us all, and although pressed on all sides there was 
never a rout. When we crossed the bridge the regi- 
ment was still intact, no soldier threw away his arms 
and there was a continual turn to fire at the advanc- 
ing foe. 

That night our weary command lay down to sleep 
upon the edge of a swamp. Brother Tomlinson unfor- 
tunately slept upon the damp earth and in the morn- 
ing he awoke with an attack of inflammatory rheuma- 
tism so severe that he was unable to move a muscle 
without great pain, he had to be lifted into a wagon 
so that he could continue with us upon our retreat. 
On crossing the Pee Dee we were near the southern 
border of North Carolina, our march being directed 
towards Fayetteville, a city of some importance upon 
the Cape Fear river. Our wounded and disabled were 
left by the wayside and were generally captured by 
the large cavalry force in our rear under command of 


General Kilpatrick. The pontoon train with General 
Sherman's army soon replaced any bridge that in 
crossing a stream we had burned. General Wade 
Hampton had been ordered from Virginia with a few 
of his cavalry troops, that were compelled to be taken 
from General Lee's army. They were joined by the dis- 
organized remnants of General Wheeler's command. 
This formed a force of five or six hundred men with 
which General Hampton attacked the center of Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick's command one morning about day- 
light. We were approaching Fayetteville, where 
General Kilpatrick had a large force of cavalry, he 
never ventured far from his infantry supports. This 
attack by Hampton's cavalry was a complete surprise. 
General Kilpatrick escaped in his night clothes in the 
thick woods near by while a number of his escorts 
were captured, together with a carriage and horses 
that had been stolen in South Carolina. In his tent 
was found his mistress, a woman that accompanied 
him from Charleston, she was much frightened but 
was left to her own contemplations. A large infantry 
force was near at hand and with a few prisoners cap- 
tured, about fifty or less, our small body of cavalry 
had to hurry them within our lines. I will never for- 
get the appearance of these men as they were hur- 
riedly marched by in the early morning, they had 
been awakened before day and nearly all were partly 
dressed. Their countenances expressed as much ma- 
lignity as it was possible to show in the human face 
as they were driven like cattle by our men. One of 
them, a very large man, bare headed and in his stock- 
ing feet but otherwise handsomely dressed as an oflS- 
cer, was so insulting as he approached General Mc- 
Law's headquarters that a Texan shot him, the others 
then recognized the fact that they were prisoners. I 
do not recollect whether he was killed or not, as the 
life of a man was of small moment at that time. 


My brother Tomlinson was sent forward to be put 
in the best quarters to be obtained in Fayetteville. 
Lieutenant M. de Graffenreid who accompanied the 
wagon promised me to make the best arrangements 
for him possible, I was detained on the line in front 
and could not now desert my post. There was a cov- 
ered bridge spanning the Cape Fear river in Fayette- 
ville and again we were the last to cross the bridge 
but not so hardly pressed as at Cheraw. As we passed 
through Fayetteville, Lieutenant de Garffenreid 
pointed out to me the room where he said brother 
Tomlinson was placed, it was over a store and some 
responsible person had promised to care for him. It 
was about sunrise and the enemy were slowly pressing 
upon our rear. A few minutes after we crossed the 
bridge it was set on fire and the heavy column of 
smoke rose high in the air as a symbol of the de- 
structiveness of war. It appears that my brother was 
informed of the passing of the rear guard and the ex- 
pected burning of the bridge across the Cape Fear 
river, he had a grim determination that he would not 
become a captive. After we had halted a mile or two 
beyond the river I was informed that Tomlinson had 
arrived in camp, aided by a cavalry picket in crossing 
the bridge. I found him in a pitiable condition, his 
limbs and joints swollen, in great pain and incapable 
of walking. The men of his company carried him 
some distance on a stretcher, until a wagon could be 
obtained when he was sent on ahead of the command. 
I was still acting adjutant but was now on foot as my 
horse had been sent on in front, for some reason that 
I have forgotten. Our course was towards Smith- 
field, where we were expected to be joined by General 
Joseph E. Johnston, who had been reinstated in com- 
mand and was to assemble the remnants of his old 
army and all other forces that he could obtain, to try 
and resist General Sherman. In the meantime Sher- 


man's army had been re-enforced by General Peck 
from Charleston and General Terry from Wilmington 
and now amounted to near two hundred thousand 
men of all arms, magnificently equipped and provi- 
sioned. His army had marched through the States of 
Georgia and South Carolina, leaving a trail of devas- 
tation behind them from twenty to fifty miles wide. 
There was no armed force capable of resisting his ad- 
vance and the excuse given for this wanton destruc- 
tion of property, was that by bringing home to the 
Southern people the horrors of war, the contest would 
be sooner ended. This barbarity did not end the war 
a day sooner and the reason given was not a true one. 
Behold the difference when General Lee's army 
marched into Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

Sherman's army was followed by the wail of dis- 
tress, the lamentations of the bereaved, the moan of 
the mother and the cry of the child. For years the 
names of the authors of these calamities among the 
people of this stricken land, when mentioned was 
joined with a malediction. The gloomy mind of the 
commander of this army seemed to be incapable of 
kind feelings, his justification of his cruel orders, was 
that war was "Hell." 

I marched across this desolated land of South Car- 
olina a few days afterwards on my return home, and 
thirty years later I rode over the same tract in a pal- 
ace car. From desolation had sprung thriving cities 
and cotton factories of larger extent than those of any 
southern State and rivaling New England in their 
products. The supremacy of the North in cotton fab- 
rics is threatened by the people whose country their 
armies had laid waste. The pure strong Anglo-Saxon 
Southern race refused to succumb to the storm, but 
arose with the sunshine of peace to rebuild their 
ruined homes. 

The commander of this army of desolation has 


passed away some years since. Whatever motive 
may have actuated him in his campaigns in Georgia 
and the Carolinas, he is entitled to the name of an 
able soldier, but also to that of a cold, pitiless, heart- 
less man. 

We now return to the campaign in North Carolina. 
After crossing the Cape Fear river we pressed on to a 
place called Aversborro, where our flanks were pro- 
tected respectively by a morass and a river, and it 
seemed at last that we were to challenge the enemy 
to combat. Although our ranks had been depleted 
by long marches, we were weary of the retreat, were 
prepared to do our best and welcomed the prospect of 
battle. It was here that the second Georgia reserves 
were drawn up for battle, and were reduced from 
three hundred and fifty men to thirty-nine in number, 
by the hardships of the march from Savannah. The 
enemy approached and after a sharp skirmish refused 
to attack us until they had a large force moving 
toward our rear. It was here that Colonel Rhett rode 
in our immediate front into the Federal lines, 
although warned by our pickets and was of course 
captured. His command was called the South Caro- 
lina Regulars ; they left Charleston a fair sized regi- 
ment, but when drawn up for battle near us num- 
bered less than two hundred men. They were unfit 
for such a campaign and if I was not misinformed 
their ranks were largely depleted by desertion. 

We were without entrenching tools and we hur- 
riedly formed a line of breastworks of pine knots, 
that lay upon the soil ia the pine woods around us. A 
few shells would have made sad havoc of this barri- 
cade. Our pickets were driven very close to our line 
of battle, and as night approached we were mo- 
mentarily expecting an attack, the suspense was 
extreme. I think the appearance of our pine knot 
barricade saved us from an attack, in which our flank 


would certainly have been turned as the swamp was 
easily crossed and we had no troops with which to 
defend it. 

When night approached the camp fires of the 
enemy appeared, reddening the skies, and nearly sur- 
rounding us as far as our vision extended, it was cer- 
tainly a mighty host and we felt the inequality of the 
contest. As soon as night had fallen (it was fortun- 
ately very dark), our pickets were ordered to cease 
fire and quietly withdraw into our lines. The senti- 
nels were not over thirty yards from our line of battle 
when they withdrew and the federal picket was but a 
few yards further. Our troops filed out of our barri- 
cades with a very strong picket line of the enemy 
within less than an hundred yards of our front. We 
were very silent and the Federal pickets were talk- 
ing to each other in the dark woods but were uncer- 
tain as to what to do. When our pickets had been 
brought in and the last of our troops had left our bar- 
ricade, I have little doubt that some of the enemy 
were among our pine knots five minutes after we left 

I was in the rear of the line, and as we were leav- 
ing I felt a musket and cartridge box leaning against 
a tree ; and from its position I knew that it belonged to 
one of the reserves who had abandoned it. I took 
about a half dozen cartridges from the box and put 
them one after another in the musket and rammed 
them down, then threw the ramrod away. I leaned 
the gun up against a tree saying to myself, some Yan- 
kee soldier will find this gun in the morning, will 
probably shoot it off, and if he does how surprised he 
will be at the way the Rebels load their guns. I do 
not know the fate of this musket. 

We made a long march that night and rested the 
next day; we were not as vigorously pursued as we 
had expected. While in camp here I requested Col- 

^^4'^lC4-?^®Wi-£^-..':' - 

,^-, -<*!.. Cv 


t.a:' . Hv «* «^_ 

Capt. James Fanning, (page 217.) 


onel Wayne to appoint another officer adjutant and 
give me the command of Company "L," my brother 
Tomlinson's company. This company was twice as 
large as any company in the regiment having now 
about twenty men ; the first sergeant was supposed to 
have been killed, its captain was disabled, and the 
men asked me to take command. Colonel Wayne ac- 
ceded to my request and wrote an order to that effect, 
in pencil against the trunk of a pine tree upon a piece 
of Confederate paper. I supposed that it was not ob- 
jected to. He then called a meeting of the officers and 
read it to them. The regiment was drawn up in line, 
they were ordered to present arms and Lieutenant S. 
C. de Pass, who had succeeded me as adjutant, read as 
follows : 

"Headquarters First Georgia Regulars. 

In the field March 1865, Lieutenant John P. Fort 
at his own request is relieved from acting adjutant of 
this regiment and will assume command of Company 
"L." For his coolness and courage under fire the 
Colonel commanding desires to return his thanks. 

Lieutenant S. O. de Pass will assume the position 
of acting adjutant of this regiment and will be obeyed 
and respected accordingly. 

R. A. Wayne, 
Colonel Commanding." 

While I had done nothing beyond my duty to de- 
serve the compliment contained in this order, I was 
proud of it as it was entirely unexpected. I have the 
order in the vault of my iron safe to-day. It was at 
this camp that something definite had to be done in 
regard to brother Tomlinson, he was often delirious 
with pain and his joints so swollen that he was inca- 
pable of giving himself food ; his condition was pitia- 
ble in the extreme. I did the very best I could for 
him under the circumstances ; my post of duty was 
with my command. A two horse wagon was going to 


Raleigh, about a clay's journey or more, this I had 
partly filled with straw and with another disabled sol- 
dier I sent him to Jtaleigh. I had but little hope of 
ever seeing my brorher again. A negro man belong- 
ing to Lieutenant Frank lloss of Macon, named Har- 
rison, had instructions to place him in a hospital. 
Harrison was to accompany the wagon and care for 
him. I assumed command of Tomlinson's company. 
We momentarily expected to be called into ac- 
tion, but were not closely pursued at this point. We 
were joined here by what was called the army of 
Tennessee, over which General Joseph E. Johnston 
had again assumed command. The fragments of 
Hood's army had been transported through Alabama, 
Georgia and South Carolina, into North Carolina once 
more to confront Sherman's army. The few that ar- 
rived in North Carolina were in a state pitiable to 
behold. There were brigades with less than one hun- 
dred men, and I recollect that a certain Tennessee 
regiment was represented by one man. The entire 
army so assembled, I feel sure did not number ten 
thousand men and I think had less effective strength. 
The appearance of these bronzed soldiers with their 
battle scarred flags was one that impressed me with 
the horrors of war. At the same time I felt a pro- 
found respect and admiration for these devoted patri- 
ots who had, without organization and of their own 
free will, marched so many hundred miles, to confront 
a foe with all the appliances of war and known to be 
twenty times their strength in number. It is to be 
regretted that a camera was not at hand to preserve 
the picture of this little army of heroes and patriots. 
With undaunted bearing they again presented their 
bodies in defense of their homes, their country and 
their constitutional rights of self government. 

With these new forces under General Hardee we 
now had from twelve to fifteen thousand troops of ali 


arms. The situation was so perilous that President 
Davis urged General Joseph Johnston to assume com- 
mand of the troops, although he had displaced him to 
put General Hood in command. General Hood after 
the retreat of his army from Tennessee resigned his 
commission. General Johnston had now under his 
command an army of twelve or fifteen thousand men 
capable of accomplishing as much as was possible 
with their number and resources. 

On the day after our combination of forces the en- 
tire army moved forward to attack a portion of Sher- 
man's army that was somewhat detached. It consisted 
of General Slocum's corps and contained an effective 
strength of probably double our entire arm3\ When 
we moved forward I am satisfied that the men we ex- 
pected to attack were further from us than we antici- 
pated, our only prospect of success was in a sudden 
and unexpected attack. There was an immense body 
of cavalry in our immediate front under the command 
of General Kilpatrick ; on ascertaining that infantry 
were attacking them, with their usual custom, their 
retreat was precipitate. Breastworks of rails and 
logs were quickly raised, the alarm was given to Slo- 
cum's corps and lines of battle were hastily formed to 
meet us. As we approached the first Federal line 
gave way with but slight opposition, and we moved 
through the woods striking another line of battle 
where a hasty attempt at obstruction had been made. 
We charged over these with some opposition, but it 
was abandoned with a slight defense as we moved on. 
The enemy had been forming their main line of bat- 
tle with their artillery in position and such breast- 
works as they could erect upon an hour's notice, their 
position was a good one being mostly upon rising 

The two brigades upon our left, Clingman's Xorth 
Carolina and Colquitt's Georgia Brigade commanded 


by Colonel Harrison, charged the line in our front 
and upon our left. A large portion of our army were 
with them. The battlefield was covered with thick 
woods, the lines approached very near each other. 
The clash of arms was terrific, the roar of battle and 
rattle of musketry rent the sky, making a noise incon- 
ceivable in its magnitude. Our little brigade, com- 
manded by Colonel Fiser, and our regiment under 
Colonel Wayne, went bravely forward over the first 
two lines of battle, and when we commenced the 
charge up a hill in the weeds upon which was the 
main line, we were ordered to lie down. 1 took it for 
granted that if the enemies lines were broken upon 
our left, that we were then to charge them in our im- 
mediate front, to complete the victory. But the 
lines were not broken. Our troops advanced in the 
woods within a few yards of the enemies main line, 
and fought a bloody, indecisive battle. While this ter- 
rible battle was in progress there was a battalion of ar- 
tillery directly in our front not more than a hundred 
yards distant, and they saw us charge partly up the 
incline just as they were getting into position. Then 
was commenced a shelling upon our little regiment, 
enough to quail the stoutest heart, and strange as it 
may seem I do not recollect that we lost any men 
while in this position. A storm of shell streamed from 
five to twenty feet above us all, bursting far in our 
rear. If any one of us had stood upright I think that 
he would have been torn to pieces, but the artillerists 
could not depress their pieces sufficiently to strike 
us. It would have been a very trying ordeal had we 
been ordered to rise and charge the enemy in our 
front. The order would have been obeyed, but it was 
not given. The impression of this battle on our men 
as we closely hugged the ground on this damp hillside 
that eventful evening, I have no doubt remained long 
with them. Colonel Wayne, who usually refused to 




In memory of Mr. Thomas Fanninij, who departed this life Nov. 29th, 1782, 

aged 60 years and 15 days. 

.Vor.i omnia vincit. 


bend his head at the whistling of a ball or the bursting 
of a shell, lay down as we did, close upon our mother 
earth. After an hour or more of cannonading and re- 
ceiving no reply, the batteries slowly ceased their un- 
welcome noise, and the entire army commenced to 
work with great vigor to build breastworks. We could 
hear them, and knew that with their entrenching tools 
they would soon have them thrown up. Our com- 
manders also knew that large re-inforcements would 
soon arrive for the army in our front, and we expect- 
ed the usual result to follow. 

We therefore withdrew from our position to occu- 
py one where our flank could not be turned. This 
was called the battle of Bentonville and was a bloody, 
indecisive engagement ; we lost nearly three thousand 
of our best men in killed and wounded and inflicted 
about the same loss upon the enemy. It was a drawn 
battle, there was no pursuit by either side. No pris- 
oners of any consequence were captured by either 
army, except two or three hundred of Kilpatrick's 
cavalry that we picked up in the charge. We consid- 
ered them a worthless set of vagabonds and not enti- 
tled to be counted. The loss to the enemy was a 
matter of small moment, but what a rent the battle 
of Bentonville made in our ranks. Several of my 
personal acquaintances in Colquitt's Brigade were 
killed, among whom was F. T. Cohen of Augusta, 
Georgia, who was upon Harrison's staff. 

This battle ought never to have been fought. 
What effect would it have had if we had killed and 
captured all of Slocum's corps, with a loss to us of 
two or three thousand men? General Sherman's force 
of one hundred and fifty thousand would have been 
left to confront us. No one understood this better 
than General Johnston, when urged by President Da- 
vis at their conference after Lee's surrender, to con- 
tinue the contest ; he said that to order his soldiers into 



another battle would be murder. This ended the first 
day's battle. That night our army withdrew from in 
front of Slocum's corps and formed a line of battle in 
shape of an inverted letter V, with one base line 
resting upon a river and the other a swamp, with the 
river in our rear across which was a strong bridge 
affording a crossing, in case of a retreat. Our entire 
army was busy making entrenchments, and our little 
regiment, now reduced to about seventy-five men, 
was sent out on one of our flanks that had the protec- 
tion of a swamp. This was done to prevent the enemy 
gaining the rear of our army, if they attempted to 
come through this swamp. 

It appeared farcical for such a small force to at- 
tempt resistance to any serious attack. When we 
arrived deep in these thick woods we found some cav- 
alry pickets of the enemy, who seemed to be slowly 
feeling their way in our direction. We immediately 
threw out a few men as skirmishers under Lieutenant 
Rutherford, who opened fire upon the cavalry and they 
at once, as usual withdrew, but not before a great num- 
ber of bullets had whizzed through the trees about us. 
We momentarily expected an attack, and felt our 
issolated position with both flanks exposed. We pro- 
ceeded to entrench as best we could, and had the size of 
our small force been known we could easily have been 
surrounded. Next morning we gave our place to some 
cavalry and took our position with the balance of the 
brigade near the apex of our line. The army had 
worked very hard and completed good entrenchments 
with logs, and an abattis of brush, a few yards in 
front of the line. About one hundred yards in front 
of our main line were rifle pits ; they represented our 
skirmish lines, and were capable of holding four men 
each, twenty steps apart. We stood on the defensive 
and dared General Sherman and all his hosts to attack 
us. General Sherman's organ of caution was largely 


developed, he was not fond of charging breastworks. 

All day we saw and felt that a mighty army was 
assembling around us. Artillery was parked in our 
front and strong double lines of battle were arrayed 
in a half circle around us, while heavy skirmish lines 
were pressed toward our rifle pits, and strong bat- 
teries opened upon our entrenchments. As far as I 
saw of our position we were entirely in a forest of 
high trees and thick undergrowth, except at the apex 
of our line, where there was a public road across our 
lines to a bridge over a stream. This was nearly a 
half a mile in our rear, and I think it was called Black 

In the afternoon the skirmishers of the enemy in 
strong force, made a rush upon our rifle pits and cap- 
tured a space of probably an hundred yards wide. 
General McLaws came upon the line under the con- 
tinued shelling of the batteries in front of us, and 
with one of his aides ordered that they be retaken at 
all hazards. The bursting of shells over our entrench- 
ments was incessant, but the order was given that a 
detail of four men from each company in the brigade, 
making about one hundred men, should be ordered 
to retake the pits. As this detail was being hurriedly 
made a few of the Federal soldiers, who had run over 
the pits, came up to our entrenchments before they 
saw them in the woods. On observing the strong line 
before them they stopped and attempted to retreat, 
but were all shot ; they should have thrown down 
their arms when they saw the situation. The want of 
presence of mind in such emergencies has often lost a 
man his life. 

About this time I heard Colonel Wayne cry out, 
" Where is Fort ? " I knew my time had come. I was 
commanded to lead the charge in order to retake the 
pits. I handed my overcoat and blanket to Sergeant 
Duke and asked him to care for them, and standing 


upon our entrenchments sword in hand, I commanded 
the detail, " Forward." The men rose up with alac- 
rity and charged toward the pits. We had some diffi- 
culty in getting through the abattis immediately in our 
front, but I formed the men upon the other side and 
with a spirited yell they charged the Yankees. Before 
we arrived within twenty paces of the pits the Fed- 
eral skirmishers evacuated them after giving us a vol- 
ley. The air was full of smoke and the woods were 
very thick ; we only lost three or four men and killed 
about the same number. I recollect the first man who 
occupied the vacant pits was a soldier named Davis of 
Company " G," the second was Sergeant Ben Smith of 
Company "B" of our regiment who volunteered in 
the charge, and the third man was myself. A short 
time after we had reoccupied these pits, a battery at- 
tempted to dislodge us but we refused to abandon 
them. Night soon brought an end to the contest, but 
the picket shooting from our pits and the skirmishers 
of the enemy continued until late at night. It is as- 
tonishing how few were killed by this wild shooting 
in the dark ; the flash of guns and the bursting of shells 
were incessant. I forget our losses but they were 
light. A shell bursting in the pit in which I was 
standing with the men covered us with a column of 
sand, without injury to any of us. 

I came near being shot by one of our own men af- 
ter night, one of the reserves, who mistook me for the 
enemy, as I was placing a few videtts in front of our 
rifle pits. General Sherman had our army partly sur- 
rounded by ten times our strength, but a road was 
open in our rear. He was afraid to attack us, but wish- 
ed us to remain in our position, hoping to throw a 
strong force in our rear the following day. He feared 
that our army would retreat during the night, and his 
surmises were correct. Toward midnight we com- 
menced filing out of our entrenchments into our only 


road of retreat. A battallion of artillery was placed 
in position and commenced a continuous fire down 
this road toward the bridge about nightfall, up to the 
time we left the entrenchments. This was continued 
all night, shot and shell were thrown down the road, 
at intervals of only a few seconds, it was kept up un- 
til dawn, and I suppose was intended to prevent our 
crossing. The line of fire was from ten to twenty 
steps to the right of the road, it was dark and the 
range not exact, and it did but little damage to the 
army. The bridge was made of strong logs and it may 
have been struck but was not destroyed; I think it 
was out of sight of the battery, although the attempt 
to strike and destroy it was continued. After our 
army had crossed and the bridge was destroyed, we 
posted a couple of cannon in a commanding position 
about one hundred yards or more from the bridge. At 
daylight a strong force of the enemy appeared at the 
bridge as if to cross it and then it was that we had a 
short lived revenge. Our guns threw a few shells 
thick and fast into their ranks and we had the pleas- 
ure of beholding a rapid retreat and confusion of our 
enemies, many being killed. Our triumph was soon 
over, we knew what to expect. Before the battallion 
of artillery that had been firing upon us all night 
could be brought to bear, in the language of the artil- 
lery, "we were limbering to the rear." Our regiment 
was again the rear guard and I saw this artillery duel 
in the early dawn. This was the last shot that I saw 
fired at the Federal soldiers. The fire of our artillery 
was very correct, striking in the very midst of the 
enemy. They fired but a few shells, as their depar- 
ture as well as our own, was hurried. A parting shell 
or so was fired in the direction of our retreat from 
across the narrow river, doing no damage and re- 
ceived with a laugh from our tired and hungry com- 


This is a reminiscence of personal events as seen 
and participated in by myself. I will relate an inci- 
dent that occurred on the evening of the last day of 
the three days' battle at Bentonville. It was an act of 
courageous heroism that was without a parallel in 
these times of heroism. A little after sundown upon 
the last day at Bentonville, when our army was so 
pressed in the trenches that not a man could be 
spared from our front, a large force of the enemy had 
crossed the marsh and woods, driving in our few cav- 
alry pickets and were about to capture the bridge in 
our rear. The capture of this bridge would have ren- 
dered the retreat of our army almost impossible, and 
this exigency was comprehended by an officer of Gen- 
eral Hardee's staff. Assembling at once all the cav- 
alry available, together with some staflF officers, a 
charge on horseback was made ; with a shout, through 
the woods across the skirmish line of the enemy, upon 
their lines of battle, they recaptured the bridge. This 
desperate charge caused a halt all along the Federal 
lines. Twilight was approaching and a line of battle 
was formed and entrenchments erected, and as night 
closed its welcome shade around us our army retreat- 
ed across this bridge and was saved. It is said that 
in this cavalry charge there were less than one hun- 
dred men. One of the leaders, General Hardee's son, 
was killed, as well as a large number of the command. 
The greater portion of the soldiers making this charge 
were of General Wheeler's veteran cavalry. I am 
pleased to give credit to the cavalry for this brave 
charge in time of dire need and to record it, as one of 
the most heroic of the closing acts in the bloody drama 
of our Civil War. AVhile not an eye witness of this 
engagement I heard the account of it at the time from 
reliable sources. 

We soon placed another river, the Neuse, between 
our army and that of General Sherman and took a 


position near Smithfield. Every man and officer in 
our army felt the full force of the desperate struggle 
we were in. Our enemies had news of the evacuation 
of Richmond, of General Lee's retreat, of the pursuit 
of General Grant's overwhelming force and were 
awaiting the issue of events. Our camp was filled 
with rumors of disaster. An order came from General 
Johnston that an officer be chosen from our brigade to 
go at once to Georgia and bring absentees, deserters, 
recruits and all available men to the army. When 
the order was known it produced a commotion in our 
camp, and the position was sought for by many ; it was 
thought a field officer, or at least a captain would be 
appointed. Colonel Wayne was given the authority 
to make the nomination, and to my great surprise I 
was ordered to proceed at once to Georgia upon this 
mission. If I had possessed the power to sell this or- 
der or transfer it, I would have had difficulty in trans- 
porting my Confederate money. I reported at once 
to General McLaws and received an order signed by 
Kinlock Falconer, Adjutant General of General Jo- 
seph E. Johnston, to proceed upon my mission with- 
out delay. All Confederate authorities were ordered 
to aid me in every way upon my journey. I bid fare- 
well to the regiment, the envy of all for I was going 
home to Georgia. With a knapsack weighing twenty- 
nine pounds and my haversack full of hardtack and 
some slices of bacon, I started on the road to Georgia 
via Raleigh. 

Before writing of my trip to Raleigh where I hoped 
to find my brother Tomlinson, I think it well to relate 
in a general way how we lived in this campaign 
through the Carolinas. I wish also to give some incidents 
of a personal character that may have occurred in our 
arduous marches. We did not forage on the country 
and often suffered from hunger, our rations consist- 
ing of three or four hardtack and a thin slice of bacon 


per day. Our brigade consisted of our regiment, the 
Second Georgia Keserves and a regiment of Georgia 
Reserves that joined us in South Carolina from Au- 
gusta, consisting probably cf one hundred and fifty 
boys. I recollect that one of these new reserves was 
an old schoolmate of mine at Milledgeville, two or 
three years younger than myself, named Dolly Mc- 
Comb. I came across him broken down upon a march 
and gave him half a day's ride upon my horse. 1 met 
Dolly many years since the war and he brought up the 
incident, for which he expressed himself very grateful. 
While in the swamps of the Salkahatchee river in 
South Carolina, it was reported that a small force of 
the enemy had crossed the river. Our regiment was 
sent down to resist them in a swamp thick with cane 
and palmetto. Our pickets reported a small force of 
the enemy about one hundred yards in our front. We 
formed in line and charged through the cane and pal- 
metto scattering them to the right and left. On ar- 
riving among them we found that they were our own 
men, a company of the Georgia Reserves who were 
out of their position and partially lost in the woods. 
One of them was Lieutenant Joseph B. Beall, a young 
friend of mine from Milledgeville. These boy sol- 
diers fired upon us as we approached, wounding three 
of our men and I believe killing one. 1 remember one 
of the wounded men lost his arm. 1 think we were 
warned that they were our own men before they fired. 
We joked the boys afterwards on account of having 
scattered them. Lieutenant Beall said that he recog- 
nized me and shouted to his company not to fire, one 
of his men had his gun drawn on me and that he pre- 
vented him from shooting. Years afterwards at Al- 
bany, Georgia, he asserted that on said occasion he 
had saved my life. I replied that when he was a 
small boy he was drowning in Fishing Creek at Mill- 


edgeville and I pulled him out of the water, so our 
saving was mutual. 

It was not an infrequent custom with our poorly 
clad and ill fed soldiers, to require a Yankee prisoner 
to disrobe for our benefit. He was made to take off 
his overcoat, blanket, or other extra accoutrements 
that he might have, the word given was known as 
"shuck." As far as our men when captured were 
concerned they had no " shuck '' upon them worth the 
taking. In the first day's charge at Bentonville we 
captured two or three hundred of Kilpatrick's cavalry. 
We had a very large man in the regiment known as 
Sergeant Copeland of Company " F." He was six feet 
and a half tall, had enormous feet and was propor- 
tionately large, and was barefooted. I saw him go 
down the line of these prisoners walking in the ice 
and mud, trying to get a pair of shoes or boots from 
one of these troopers, but none could be found large 
enough for him. I recall the reluctance with which 
the prisoners held up their feet for inspection. 

When we left Fayetteville there was issued to our 
regiment about a dozen pairs of inferior shoes, that 
had been brought through the blockading fleet at 
Wilmington. These shoes were given only to bare- 
footed soldiers, and while I was not barefooted our ne- 
gro cook Willis was ; I wished to circumvent the quar- 
termaster and get a pair of shoes for Willis, I felt sorry 
to see him wading through the rain and mud bare- 
footed with his long slue feet and jay bird heels. I 
put on some worthless shoes and went up to see Cap- 
tain W. W. Paine, our worthy quarter master. The 
officers gave him the nickname of "Daddy" and so 
called him when not in his presence, I suppose in de- 
rision as he had been married many years, but had no 
children. I applied for the shoes, he said he had but 
three pairs left, that they were for the barefooted men 
in the ranks, and I could not get them. I exhibited 


my old shoes and eventually he relented and issued 
me a pair. I then informed him that I had good 
shoes and wanted these for my negro cook who was 
barefooted and entitled to them. The kind old fellow 
was furious at me but I laughingly kept the shoes 
(very shoddy shoes they were), and gave them to Wil- 
lis with instructions to take the best care of them. A 
morning or so afterwards I saw Willis standing by the 
camp fire boiling a skillet of mush, his feet were 
pushed in the shoes over the vamp untied, with his 
long heels protruding. I was indignant at the sight 
and seizing a long hickory switch lying near, as Wil- 
lis was stooping over the fire his tight pants presented 
a fair mark, and I gave him one cut, a good one, that 
caused him to jump over and into the fire, I pointed to 
his shoes. After this Willis was careful of the said 
shoes. I mention this as the last and only whipping 
I ever gave a slave and he deserved it. 

During the second day's engagement at Benton- 
yille, our small regiment was in an isolated position 
in front of a thick swamp upon the left flank of the 
army. As we drew up in the woods with both flanks 
unprotected, with a very few cavalry pickets in our 
front, we were informed that the enemy were advanc- 
ing through the swamp. We became aware of this by 
the whizzing of balls through the thick trees, the pick- 
ets in front of us withdrew. We felt the isolation of 
our position and the total inadequacy of our force. 

Lieutenant Rutherford with about twenty men 
was ordered to press forward and fire upon the ad- 
vancing foe and make as much show of force as possi- 
ble. The rest of our command of about seventy-five 
were ordered to entrench where we stood. Having 
no tools but our hands, we commenced with great as- 
siduity to obtain what we could to protect ourselves,, 
while lying down in line of battle. Lieutenant Gus\ 
Rutherford, my mess-mate and friend, knew the peril 


of his advance and before going came quickly to me 
and handed me two articles to care for, as he did not 
expect to return. These two articles were a daguer- 
reotype and a meershaum pipe. I knew that he val- 
ued his pipe above all his other possessions, (he was 
an inveterate smoker), but I had no idea that he pos- 
sessed such a treasure as this photograph. As we 
were working to entrench ourselves momentarily ex- 
pecting an attack, I whispered to a soldier of my 
Company, a large, red headed man named Gilham. 
"Gilham if anything happens to me put your hand in 
my right hand pants pocket and take from it what 
you find there, they belong to Lieutenant Rutherford, 
give them to him." Gilham replied, "Lieutenant I 
will and if I fall, tell my old lady, who lives at Stone 
Mountain, Georgia, that I died fighting like a man." 

The first fire of Lieutenant Rutherford's command 
caused the enemy to halt and they soon withdrew 
their line. They were probably cavalry and the thick- 
ness of the underbrush prevented our small number 
being known. When we withdrew toward night I 
handed back to Lieutenant Rutherford his precious 
mementoes, with a request that he never give me in 
trust such a charge again. For the benefit of the cu- 
rious I will state that I looked at this daguerreotype 
and recognized a Florida beauty, who shortly thereaf- 
ter married another man. My friend Augustus con- 
soled himself in the charms of a young widow and at 
this time is happy and prosperous in the state of Ala- 

For fear these personal reminiscences will be tedi- 
ous, I have a last word to illustrate what I consider 
the best qualifications of a good soldier, I would say 
coolness in time of danger. While in our rifle pits on 
the last day of the battle of Bentonville a shell struck 
the mound in front of us. It threw a column of sand 
over myself and Sergeant Ben Smith of Company "B," 


who was by my side. Smith shook this sand from his 
person and remarked very calmly, "I do not mind 
those shells." He was a volunteer in this charge, was 
an unerring shot, had never missed a battle from the 
many pitched battles in which the regiment had been 
engaged, and he was the first to enter the pits and 
killed a Federal soldier as they left them on our ad- 
vance. 1 will never forget the coolness of the remark, 
spoken in time of such danger. Sergeant Smith was 
from Coweta County, Georgia, he was my ideal of an 
effective soldier, but we had many such in our army. 

I will now return and give a short sketch of the 
regiment, for the very few days that it existed after I 
left under orders for Georgia. I do not recollect the 
exact date of my departure, but it was early in April 
1865, and four or five days before the news came of 
the surrender of General Lee's army. A few days 
after I left the regiment, an attempt was made by 
General Johnston to reorganize his shattered army. A 
large number of commands from Georgia were placed 
in our regiment and it was to be known as the First 
Georgia Regulars. It comprised more than one thou- 
sand men and each company had one hundred or 
more men in its ranks, Colonel R. A. Wayne was 
given the command. A great many officers were 
placed in the ranks and many of our ofiicers were 
dropped, to make room for officers from other com- 
mands. This plan of reorganization produced a com- 
motion, but it was borne by the officers and men of 
the army with patriotism and firmness. While not 
present I was informed, that there was a great scram- 
ble for commissions in the regiment and all kinds of 
influences were used to retain officers' places. How- 
ever this may have been, upon the reorganization my 
brother Tomlinsou, although absent, was advanced to 
the position of senior captain of the regiment, and I 
was advanced to that of senior first lieutenant. As 


neither one of us were present or knew of the reor- 
ganization, I have always thought that we had reason 
to be satisfied with the result. Colonel Wayne did not 
have the gratification of commanding this large body 
of men except for a very few days. The news came 
of the surrender of General Lee's army, of the confer- 
ence between General Johnston and President Davis, 
of the refusal of General Johnston to speak at the 
conference, except to say that any further continua- 
tion of the contest by the army under his command, 
he would consider simply the murder of his troops. 
There was a conference with General Sherman and 
the terms of surrender arranged. Alas ! the poor 
Confederacy. The Federal armies at this time com- 
prised a million of men, while our entire forces did 
not amount to fifty thousand men with resources of 
supply practically exhausted. No valor could avail 
against such overwhelming resources. The position 
taken by General Johnston in this last conference 
with the President was a sound one, although bitterly 
contested by the President who insisted upon a fur- 
ther resistance. 

The history of the last campaign of our regiment 
is not complete, until I give some further sketch of one 
of the principal actors in the many battles partici- 
pated in by the regiment, during this terrible war be- 
tween the States. 

My first objective point on my way to Georgia was 
Kaleigh. I arrived there in a day's travel and with 
some trepidation, inquired the whereabouts of my 
brother. I soon found him and was rejoiced to see him 
excellently cared for. He was in a small out-house 
that seemed to have been used for an office, in front 
of a large building and had the attention of his ser- 
vant besides the supervision of a beautiful and charm- 
ing Southern lady, Mrs. Rayner by name. God bless 
the women of the Confederacy. Mrs. Rayner I after- 


wards found to be of a distinguished family. She was 
a sister of the Confederate General Leonidas Polk. 
All classes nursed the Confederate soldier. 

My brother was in a bed with clean linen and 
feather pillows, but still unable to move his limbs or 
feed himself. The wounds that he had received at 
Malvern Hill and Manassas, together with his rheu- 
matic attack had brought him to death's door. But 
careful nursing restored him to health and three 
months thereafter he appeared at our mother's home 
in Macon to the joy of all the household. My trip to 
Georgia does not come within the scope of this article. 

In conclusion I beg leave to say a word as to war. 
Stonewall Jackson defined war as "death," General 
Sherman as "hell." Whatever may be its true definition 
it is always unjustifiable, inhuman, barbarous, the 
cause having nothing to do with the issue of the con- 
test. Success attends that side whose resources are 
sufficient to overcome their opponents, which re- 
sources consists of ability to purchase men, supplies, 
and munitions of war. The acceptance of greenbacks 
as money and their maintenance as such, kept Federal 
armies in the field. For the last year of the contest 
it was the pure white flame of patriotism that sus- 
tained the Confederate cause. But no cause however 
just, no valor however great, could withstand the re- 
sources of the North, sustained by immigrants from 
Europe and with the frown of the civilized world up- 
on the institution of negro slavery. 



[By Fannie Fort Brown] 

Family portraits are interesting, to the family 
apart from deeper feeling, they recall the intimate ex- 
periences of life. 

Now and then when something startles, annoys or 
bores me, I catch myself saying, "well, that is heavy," 
uncle Joe contributed that use of the word "heavy" to 
the English language, as he had a perfect right to do, 
and as I speak it the furrow between the eyes smooths 
into a reminescent smile. I see him again, an old 
gentleman, not so very old either, of medium height, 
bald with a fringe of yellow-grey hair around a well 
formed head, with the very thinnest, fairest skin im- 
aginable, and the clearest blue eyes which he had a 
way of opening so widely (when getting off a joke), 
that the white showed all around the ball, an ugly 
man perhaps, but for his animated face. He was gen- 
uinely contemptuous of his own appearance for he 
adored fat like a Turk and discussed muscle like an 
athlete. And indeed he was as lean as "Don Quixote" 
and undoubtedly looked like our idea of that hero. 
Ah ! but what graceful manners, and he never sus- 
pected what distinction they gave him. 

High spirited, he ran away from college and went 
to fight Indians in Florida, he then studied law and 
never practiced a day. He became a gentleman of 
leisure, his idea of happiness did not include hard 
work, why should it? his father did that for him, and 
then his health was never robust. 

So he hired out his slaves, not even caring to es- 
tablish a plantation as most Southerners did. He had 
a fine orchard and strawberry beds, out on a pretty 
farm in the suburbs of Milledgeville and there he 


kept his unavailable force, the sick and old negroes 
and the women with growing families. Even this 
bored and bothered him and mother had to "jog him 
up" to see after it. 

One day a little darkey came to him saying, "Marse 
Joe, Cuzzie say the meal and meat done gin out." 
"Tell her to eat peaches," replied our whimsical un- 

When his slaves wanted passes to stay out after 
nine at night (they were afraid of the "patter-rollers"), 
he never wrote them. If Sallie was not on hand I 
performed that duty, painfully and with pothooks. 
Which reminds me of his singular aversion to both 
reading and writing letters, he sometimes carried one 
in his pocket unopened for days, some of us finally 
coaxing him to read it. Why? Who knows? 

He always lived with us, as father said "Joe's oc- 
cupation has been to tease my children." Many were 
the practical jokes he played on his young victims, to 
put a small child into a frenzy of rage, was the breath 
of his nostrils. Near us lived a widower named Ebe- 

neezar C , I was about six or seven years old, yet 

would Uncle Joe reduce me to bi1;ter tears by allusions 
to my beau Ebeneezar and my ten step-children to be. 
As we grew up we found out that our tormenter was 
a most intelligent, original man and unlike most ec- 
centric people he was easy to live with. 

On moonlight nights in August, our large and ar- 
gumentative family would assemble on the long ve- 
randa and discuss this world and other worlds, the 
discussion of politics and religion especially waxed 
warm. Dncle Joe would rise to his feet, turn red in 
the face and declaim on the silent night air until some 
one would burst out laughing and the talk would drift 
into other channels. It is good to remember that tem- 
per played no part in these discussions, I doubt if ever 
a family lived more pleasantly together. Of course 


Uncle Joe Fannin's religious ideas were odd. Every- 
body lent him strange books with wild pictures in 
them and delirious text. He leaned toward the mys- 
tic, he believed in spiritualism and experimented in 
mesmerism with a good deal of success. Our careless 
circle of young people looked on all this as rather a 
joke, he would have found more sympathy in this day, 
when people are so interested in the psychic. The war 
stripped him of everything; this he accepted with a 
genuine philosophy. He who had worn velvet vests 
of the finest, with buttons gorgeous to behold, the 
daintiest shirts, the immaculate broadcloth, peculiar 
to his class in the South, renounced these vanities 
with a rare grace, his humor saved him. He also took 
comfort in the "Banner of Light" and its marvels, a 
paper devoted to spiritualism. 

Just after the war some one asked him for tobacco 
(gentlemen chewed then), he handed it over saying 
" Yes, I am chewing up Martin Van Buren." Now 
Martin Van Buren was a darkey he had sold for a box 
of tobacco, when the Confederacy was at its last gasp. 
I must be honest and confess that all his life he was 
more than a "little gay," a pattern man might be 
prettier but he would not be " Uncle Joe." His very 
weakness betrayed his innate refinement, under all 
circumstances he was the pink of courtesy. He was 
severe on gamblers, if he ever harmed a living soul 
we never heard of it. 

His treatment of mother bordered on reverence, he 
was the gentle companion of her old age. If we only 
had a photograph of them as they sat on the shady 
veranda playing chess in the afternoons. Mother in 
thin linen lawn with snowy wash blonde around her 
neck, a dash of powder on her cheek and a trace of 
her favorite cologne in the air ; and all about her, her 
favorite flowers, jasmins, geraniums and all the plants 
she knew how to grow to perfection. 



Any one is a benefactor of the race who makes the 
world laugh and this uncle of ours had that rare "at- 
tic salt" which seasoned everything he said. His hu- 
mor was highly intellectual and the things he said 
often too evanescent to keep exactly in the memory, 
yet left the liveliest impression. A more honorable 
man never lived. We ought to cherish his memory 
for it was his fixed conviction that "sister's children" 
were wonders, and "sister" he loved more than any- 
thing on earth. He never seemed to care to marry 
and I do not believe ever had a serious romance. 
Mother once advised him to address a fine girl that 
she knew saying "And I think she will accept you." 
"Sister," he replied, "when 1 decide to marry 1 believe 
1 prefer to select my wife myself." Yet he was firm- 
ly convinced that everybody was trying to marry, es- 
pecially the women and said that he should get mar- 
ried in the next world. 

Few men serve in two wars but uncle Joe went out 
with the Georgia Militia in 1865 when the South made 
a last, expiring effort. Probably these poor old sol- 
diers were rather a more pitiful than a terrible look- 
ing body, but we were proud of uncle Joe's spirit. He 
was sick and took with him a servant who carried 
"Marse Joe's gun and and things," in the little cam- 
paign around Jonesboro, Georgia. They did a little 
marching, no fighting I believe, and wearily with 
heavy hearts came home again. The play was over, 
the lights out and strange and hard conditions were 
to be met. "Uncle Joe" is a living presence in our 
family gallery, he fills a niche peculiar to himself, 
unique, alone. 



[B7 Sarah Fort Milton.] 

I am requested by my good sister, who is the his- 
torian of the family, to write out a short sketch of a 
war wedding, in which I took the rather prominent 
part of bride. Now I might have written a thrilling 
story of a war wooing, a courtship carried on at par- 
ties in which the men were all in uniform and the 
girls either in calico, which cost ten dollars a yard 
Confederate money and looked very handsome, or 
faded silk which had been dyed and turned in every 
conceivable way. Or I might have told of picnics 
that were interrupted, because freshly wounded men 
had been brought to the hospital, so that the surgeons 
could not remain away from their posts. In fact when 
I look back at the times I wonder that there was gai- 
ty or any thought of marriage or giving in marriage 
among us during the year 1864. Macon was one vast 
hospital, thousands of sick and wounded were there 
to be cared for, every public building was filled and 
hundreds of tents were spread in every direction. 
Sickness and suffering were all around us, while near- 
er and nearer came the advancing Federal armies. 
Yet strange to say we danced and were light-hearted. 
I really can't understand it. Human nature is a queer 
thing and war brings out its best and worst qualities. 
In looking back to that time it seems to me that I led 
a sort of dual life. In the morning sister Kate and I 
with our mother, went to the hospital to give what 
aid and comfort we could to the suffering soldiers, 
poor, brave fellows, how our hearts bled for them. 
We carried a well cooked breakfast, but the crowning 
luxury was the large heaped up bowl of tomatoes and 
onions with a dressing of home-made vinegar. Never 


can I forget the pale, haggard faces and gleaming eyes, 
as they eagerly called for more ''tomatuses and ing- 
uns," and how glad we were to do anything to help 
them. We devised slings for the wounded arms, car- 
ried clothes to them, in fact, nothing we had was 
withheld from these poor soldiers. But when the day 
was over there was a change. 

The town was full of young oflBcers, surgeons and 
assistant surgeons mostly, and when they came to in- 
vite us to join in the dance, why we were quite ready 
to don our faded finery and go. 

I suppose it would have been much more romantic 
to have fallen in love with a wounded soldier in the 
hospital, but it so happened that it was by one of the 
good looking young surgeons that I was wooed and 
won. That essential preliminary settled, the next 
question was "clothes," the trousseau so important to 
every bride. By 1865 the old clothes of the family 
which had been worn during the four years of war 
were almost threadbare, yet there were some rem- 
nants of better days left, which had been carefully 
packed away as too good for common use, these were 
all brought out and generously bestowed upon the 
bride. Three handsome silk dresses were turned and 
remade, " almost as gude as new." Then a piece of 
cloth which had been brought in by a blockade run- 
ner was fashioned into a cloak with brass buttons. 
These buttons cost eighty dollars, Confederate money, 
and the cloak cost $1,000 in the same medium. 

But the struggle was in the little things. The shoes 
which I wore away were made of coon skin by " Mar- 
tin Van Buren," my Uncle Joe's famous negro. They 
had leather strings and I will add here that on my 
wedding journey I was so unlucky as to burn a hole 
in one of them and the bridegroom had the pleasure 
of paying forty dollars for the patch. As for gloves I 
had three pair given me as wedding presents, all home- 


made and my recollection is that they were not only 
handsome but were well fitting. 

A hat which was almost new was re-trimmed with 
feather flowers, the trimming and flowers cost three 
hundred and forty dollars. Now I suppose that pos- 
terity which is expected to read these memoirs would 
like to have some idea of the fashions of the day, so I 
will give a slight description of the wedding dress. It 
was a soft, thin white material, " silk lisso " I think it 
was called, the skirt was very wide over the volumi- 
nous hoop which was the fashion of the day, while the 
waist was of white silk with a point, back and front 
to give a slender effect to the waist. 

A bertha of lace fell from the shoulders and full 
flowing sleeves, called "angel sleeves" fell from the 
arms. A veil of the same material, caught in with a 
wreath of tiny white roses (home-made) covered the 
bride, so on the whole, for war times the effect was 
quite fine. As for the groom he stood in his Con- 
federate officer's uniform, that of a captain of the 
staff, and no man ever wore a costume more becom- 
ing, or one which reflected more honor on its wearer. 
From sadness engendered by the war, the intention 
was not to have a large wedding, but in those hospit- 
able days, when one began to invite they hardly knew 
when to stop. So my memory recalls a gay and I may 
say a brilliant throng, which on that February night 
filled the spacious parlors in the old house in Macon. 
The men were nearly all in the Confederate gray and 
the girls in dresses which looked gay and bright, no 
matter how often they had been turned and dyed. 
We gathered around the well filled table eating of 
that then almost forgotten rarity ice cream, for there 
had been a snow the day before and enough was gath- 
ered to make a kind of ice cream. And drinking the 
last of my mother's good sherry wine, saved for some 
special occasion, we were all as merry and happy as 


if no dark war cloud hung over the land. How little 
did we dream that in three short months the war 
would be finished, our fortunes wrecked and our 
bright hopes of the Southern Confederacy vanished 
like a dream. 

I add a dressmaker's bill which will give some 
idea of the prices. 

Miss Fort to Miss Wytue, 

To making cloak $55.00 

Two dozen buttons 80.00 

Altering dress, Basting 
Thread and Pinking 38.00 


Now one can see from this what an item the thread 
was, that the basting thread was a separate item. It 
recalls to me that thread was very scarce and very 
precious, and that we had a device for blacking white 
thread, which was a ball of wax filled with soot. We 
knit corset laces and shoe strings out of homespun 
thread and made buttons of pasteboard or even gun 
wads, covered with silk or velvet. In fact, the inge- 
nuity of those days fills me with wonder when I re- 
call them. The South was being tested and showed 
evidences then of what it has since accomplished. 



[By Sarah Fort Milton.] 

My dear father was a man who left no mean repu- 
tation behind him as a physician and a man of public 
affairs, but few even of his nearest and dearest, knew 
of his talents in a line of which I am going to record. 

It was as a story teller and a cook, for the two are 
associated together with him in my mind during my 
childhood. He was a man who loved to gather his 
little ones around him and tell them stories. 

Often in the winter twilight before the lamps were 
lit, if we could coax a piece of dough from the cross 
old negro cook, we watched him with eager eyes as he 
moulded for us a duck, or a beautiful bird with a head 
and tail and two wings and a pert little tail which 
stood up straight behind. These wonderful creations 
were carefully placed on a shovel with a long handle, 
then gently laid over a bed of hot coals on the old- 
fashioned wood fire ; while waiting for the cooking of 
the bird his delighted audience demanded a tale, 
" something about Indians or what you used to do 
when you were a little boy." So my dear father as he 
gazed into the fire told us of the big wide fireplace of 
his childhood in the log house, how he used to roast 
potatoes in the ashes while his mother would tell him 
stories of the Revolution. How she sat before the fire 
at night with her baby in her arms with only her 
faithful servants as protectors, grandfather being 
away in the war. They spoke only in whispers, so 
fearful were they of the Tories and Indians which 
surrounded them and ravaged the country with fire 
and sword, and they had vowed vengeance against her 
husband. She said sometimes they would hear a 


stealthy tread on the outside and when she sprung to 
the window a dark form could be seen running away. 
One night as she was hushing her baby to sleep, she 
looked up and saw through a crack in the wall an eye, 
a wicked, cruel eye, watching her. You may be sure 
that she stopped all the cracks and fastened all the 
doors as best she could. She was a little woman, slen- 
der and frail, but when I think of how she managed 
to rear her family of nine tall sons and daughters, 
looking after the wants of white and black, having all 
the clothes worn, spun and woven on the plantation. I 
am inclined to think that we must look to the past 
and not the future for our strong minded and strong 
hearted women. 

One day grandfather came home as secretly as he 
could on a short visit. You may be sure that all the 
cracks were stopped and everything closed fast and 
tight, for there was one man, a neighbor and Tory and 
a low creature, who had been scouring the country 
with his cut-throat band. He claimed allegiance to 
the King, but was in reality robbing and pillaging his 
neighbors for his own benefit. 

Now I wish when I write stories of my household 
ancestors, as the Chinese say, that I could represent 
them as being in a stately mansion, with silver plate 
on the sideboard, but alas ! truth compels me to state 
that the hardy pioneers who struck out into the wil- 
derness left luxury behind them. They moved like 
Abraham of old with their men servants and their 
maid servants, their cattle and horses. They built and 
lived in humble cabins of hewn logs and my grand- 
mother felt a little finer than her neighbors because 
her house had two rooms with an open hall between. 
While conversing with my grandfather in whispers, a 
noise of many feet in the hall startled them, a mo- 
ment more and with a crash the door was burst open, 
and in came a band of Tories led by this villainous 

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neighbor. My grandfather rose to his feet without a 
word for it was useless to resist, there were twenty to 
one. "Give me your coat," demanded the leader, and 
his home-spun and well worn coat was handed over; 
"and now your shoes," and still without a word the 
stout home-tanned shoes were given up, barefooted 
and coatless he stood. " Now Arthur Fort prepare to 
die," said the leader and he drew his rifle to his shoul- 
der. Up to this time my grandmother had stood par- 
alyzed with fear, she now suddenly rushed in front of 
her tall husband exclaiming " shoot us both, for if he 
is to die I will too." She was such a little mite of a 
woman and her husband so big and tall that there 
seemed something almost comic in the situation. The 
leader hesitated, put his gun down and said " we will 
spare his life for the sake of the little woman, but 
boys take what you want in the house." My grand- 
father and grandmother stood clasped in each other's 
arms while their house was pillaged before their eyes. 
Nothing was spared, things they could not use de- 
stroyed or carried off, feather beds torn up, and even 
a side-saddle of which my grandmother was very 
proud taken off; it was found some time after in a 
swamp near by. At last the wretches left, and grand- 
father and grandmother laid themselves down to sleep 
svith their baby between them, thankful that they 
'had been spared to each other. After the war was 
over my grandfather soon had plenty and prosperity 
around his dwelling. He even as a Christian forgave 
all his enemies but one, and he always said to his wife, 
^ ^ "if I ever meet him I will have to kill him." But this 
Tory neighbor took care not to meet him ; he avoided 
going anywhere he might meet Arthur Fort, his gang 
had scattered, and he lived deserted and alone. One day 
my grandfather suddenly met him in the dark woods. 
Neither man was armed, when the creature saw grand- 
father rushing towards him with fury in his eye, he 


fell to the ground before him, an object of terror. 
Grandfather lifted his foot which was of heroic size, 
gave three vigorous kicks to the brazen wretch, then 
he walked off muttering to himself, "I'd have killed 
him but for the little woman at home." 

When the story was ended the cooking was re- 
sumed and my memory is that the bird was scorched 
without and was raw within, but no canvas back duck 
with champagne sauce had ever so fine a flavor. 





[By Sarah Fort Milton.] 

I must say by way of preface to my little story 
which I am about to relate, that it may sound improb- 
able if not impossible to us at this time, when the 
thought of war suggests the roar of cannon and the 
sharp crack of rifles. But we must remember that if 
we step back one hundred years the cumbrous flint 
and steel musket which took eleven minutes to load, 
was the best weapon in use, and in a close hand to 
hand fight these must have been clumsy and hard to 

The story is a tradition handed down by word of 
mouth, and I am going to relate it just as it was told 
to me by a good cousin of mine who would not tell a 
lie. She in turn had it from her mother, a regular 
George Washington, she could not tell one, and she 
had it from my grand-father Arthur Fort, who was in 
the fight and knew all about it. The boy hero of the 
story was my grand-mother's cousin, Neddy Pace by 

It was a beautiful summer morning during the 
stormy days of the Revolutionary war when in War- 
ren County, Georgia, a bare-footed youth of sixteen 
was plowing. As he turned up the soft brown earth 
we can well imagine that his mind was filled with 
thoughts of the war, stories of the outrages on his 
neighbors and friends. The British had overrun the 
country and they had as allies the Indians and also 
the scum of the population, a set of border ruffians, 
who had made of war a system of robbery and pil- 
age, rather than regular warfare. 

It was very common for a band of these Tories and 


Indians, with perhaps a few of the reguh»r Hritish 
soldiers, to fall on a defenseless family and carry otF 
all they could and then wantonly destroy what was 
left. Feather beds in particular were an especial ob- 
ject of their notice, many are the traditions of how 
these were ripped open and the feathers scattered far 
and wide. It is hard for us to realize in this day 
when feather beds are relepated to the attics, how 
much those hardy pioneers thought of them. It was 
a mark of respectability to have several, and as they 
were piled up on those tall bedsteads and covered 
with the brilliant patchwork quilts which our pran<l- 
mothers used to make, they certainly gave dignity to 
their surroundings; but I must return to my story. 

My hero was suddenly interrupted by loud shouts. 
A number of horsemen came rushing by. "Come and 
join us,'- they cried, "we are going out to meet the 
British and Tories, arm yourself and come on, no time 
to lose,'' and on they ilashed. 

Cousin Neddy quickly cut the horse out of the 
plow, leaped on his back and rushed to the house t(» 
get ready to join the fray. He found that the elder 
brother had taken the gun ami he looked in vain foi* 
sword or pistol, but found only a pair of spurs which 
he hastily buckled on his bare feet. Now just here, 1 
must say that he may have owned a pair of shoes 
which he kept for high days and holidays, but the 
story was always told me that he had a fine horse but i 
no shoes. At last he spied a long solid bar of copper, 
the handle of what is now an obsolete and almost for- 
gotten article of household use, a warming pan, they 
were small copper boxes with long solid handles, used 
to hold coals to warm the beds of our forefathers. 
This was doubtless an heirloom brought over from the 
old country and now kept as a reminder of the days 
when the family possessed feather beds, now all emp- 
tied by those wretches, the Tories. Neddy seized this 


pan handle, (whether the pan was attached to it or 
not I never could find out), and leaping on his horse 
away he went. 

The battle or rather skirmish has never been re- 
corded in history, but the tradition runs that it was a 
f short but spirited fight. Hand to hand, man to man 
they fought and in the thickest and fiercest of it, young 
Neddy and his pan handle were to be seen. The 
Americans were triumphant and the British and To- 
ries departed in haste, leaving their dead on the field, 
among them a British officer killed by that copper 
pan handle, and Neddy the proud owner of two 
swords he had captured in the fight. After the battle 
there was a division of the spoils, and all the arms 
taken were sold. So Neddy stood by and saw his 
handsome officer's sword bought by some body else, 
while the common one was bidden in and given to 
him. He returned to his plow having gained experi- 
ence but not wisdom, for he carefully preserved the 
sword but foolishly threw away the pan handle. I 
have often seen the sword which was an old cavalry 
^aber, black with age, and heard the story from my 
good cousin. 




[Col. Fannin was a First Cousin of Martha Low Fort.] 




The ruins of the old mission church of the antique 
Mexican town Goliad, gray with time and bristling 
with thistles and cacti, lies strewn in remarkable con- 
fusion along the river San Antonio on the south coast 
of Texas. These ruins like another Alhambra bring 
up thoughts of the past, and the Texan of today re- 
verts to the stirring scenes of the Revolution of 1836 
and of the bloody incidents connected with that strug- 
gle. The main building is still standing, it dates from 
1732, it was occupied by the Spanish monks as a fort 
for defense against the Indians. 

Early in 1836 General Santa Anna, the arrogant 
dictator of Mexico, undertook the invasion of a terri- 
tory still claimed by the Mexicans. Sending General 
Urrea to chastise the settlements on the Gulf coast, 
Santa Anna himself with four thousand troops in- 
vaded West Texas, he had taken the city of San An- 
tonio and with characteristic cruelty, putting the 
Texan garrison in the Alamo fortress to the sword.; 
While Travis and its heroic defenders lay among the! 
heaps of slain, Gen. Urrea rapidly advanced north-" 
ward and on the 18th of March appeared before Go- ' 
Had, whose church and stone fortress were occupied j 
by the Texan commander, Col. Fannin, with three j 
hundred men. On the morning of the 19th, with a 
small detachment of cavalry and several pieces of ar- 
tillery, the Texans evacuated the town and retreated 
towards Victoria. But Col. Fannin was too late in 
the movement, he was intercepted by the Mexicans 



on the banks of the Coleta, where ensued one of the 
fiercest engagements of the Texan revolt. Urrea had 
seventeen hundred men to Fannin's devoted band of 
three hundred. After a desperate resistance during 
which many were slain on both sides, Col. Fannin sur- 
rendered his whole command, it being expressly stip- 
ulated in writing with the Mexican commander, that 
they were to be treated as prisoners of war, and event- 
ually forwarded to the United States. The Texan 
prisoners were placed in the old church, from which 
only a few days before they had departed assured of 
victory. Two days later the wounded, among them 
Col. Fannin himself arrived, the latter being placed 
under Col. Holzinger, a German engineer in the Mex- 
ican army. A number of Texan volunteers were also 
brought in as prisoners of war. Col. Fannin talked 
confidently of an early release and a journey into the 
States ; all were cheerful, unconscious that the order 
for their massacre had been signed by the unscrupu- 
lous tyrant Santa Anna. The Mexican commander, 
Col. Portilla, was entrusted with the order for this 
wholesale butchery. Palm Sunday, March 27th, 
dawned bright and clear. The lives of four physicians 
from the prisoners, Drs. Bernard, Field, Hall and 
Shackelford, were spared, they were wanted to at- 
tend the wounded in the battle of Coleta. 

The Texans were marched out in the open prairie 
and ordered to sit down with their backs to the 
guards. Upon hearing the order a young man named 
Fenner, sprang up exclaiming, "boys they are going 
to kill us, let us die with our faces to them like men." 
Others waived their hats shouting "Hurrah for Tex- 
as." The next instant there was a flash and a report, 
they fell dead and were dispatched with knives in a 
brutal manner. Many attempted to escape, but only 
twe»^' -seven succeeded. One of these was William 
dnter of the New Orleans Grays, who was secre- 


ted by a Mexican woman in (tolia*! and hl« life itaved. 
Judjjo Hunter became one of the be»it cilir.en»i of Tex- 
as, and took pleasure in recounting the terrible iiccne 
of the filauiihter of Fannin and his men. Col. Fannin 
was the last to sutTer, he was tied in a chair with hit 
face t6 his executioners, he then bared hi« breast and 
asked them to shoot him in the hrart. Hofon* the 
fatal shot he took otl his watch, hand(>d it to the ofll. 
cer in command with the riMjuest that it be nvut to hi« 
wife. At the old Mission church three hun<lretl and 
thirty Texans sutfered death in this maiifiacre on I'alm 
Sunday, March I'Tth, 1>:^'.. The ruins of old "(Joliad" 
cements the hatred every old I'exan fceld for the de- 
spicable character of (ten. Santa Anna, who've prrfidy 
only equalled his capacity for cruelty and butchery. 




Commission of Tomlinson Fort, as First Lieu- 
tenant in the Civil War 1861-65. 

In the left hand corner appears the oiBcial seal of 
the Executive Department of the State of Georgia. 

The Governor of the State of Georgia. A pic- 
ture of the Coat-of-Arms of the State of Georgia, and 
the Motto is given, " Wisdom, Justice and Modera- 

To all who shall see these presents, greeting: 

Know Ye, that reposing special trust and confi- 
dence in the patriotism, valor, fidelity, and abilities 
of Tomlinson Fort, I have commissioned him First 
Lieutenant in the 1st Regiment, in the service of 
the State of Georgia : to rank as such from the 
First day of February, Eighteen hundred and sixty- 
one. Ho is therefore carefully and diligently to 
discharge the duty of First Lieutenant by doing and 
performing all manner of things thereunto belonging. 
And 1 do strictly charge and require all Officers and 
Soldiers under his command to be obedient to his 
orders as First Lieutenant. And he is to observe and 
follow such orders and directions, from time to time, 
as he shall receive from me, or the future Governor of 
the State of Georgia, or the General or other superior 
oflicers set over him, according to the rules and disci- 
pline of War. This Commission to continue in 
force unless removed by sentence of a Court Martial, 
or revoked whenever a Government shall be estab- 
lished by the Southern States to which Georgia may 


Joseph E. Brown. 

Bv the Governor : 

Henry C. AVayne, 

Adjutant General. 



ComTT)ifl!)ion of Tomlin^on Fort, as Captain in 
the Civil War, iHUr.S. 

CoNKKiiKi.ATB Statk«« i*r Amki:p \. 

Wak narAKTMKM. 

Kirhmon.l, May 2»Wh. 1S6'J. 

You are hereby informe«l that the I're-nlent haa 
appointed yon Captain Kiritt Hogimont (teorgia 
Hegularp, in the Trovisional Army in the serviro of 
the Confederate iSlatefl : to rank as nurh from the 
twenty-firHt day of May, one thousand eij^ht hundred 
and sixty two. Should the Senate, at th»Mr next 
session, advise and connent thereto, you will he rom- 
missioned arrorilinply. 

Immediately on receipt hereof. j)le>«-f to rommu- 
nicate to this Department, through the A<ljutMnt and 
Inspector (ieneral's Office, your acci»ptance or non- 
acceptance of said appointment ; and with your letter 
of acceptance, return to the Adjutant and Inspector 
General the Oath, herewith enclosed, properly filled 
up. Subscribed and Attested, reporting at the same 
time your Ape, Ker»idence when appointed, and the 
State in which you were born. 

Should you accept, you will report for duty to 
Colonel Magill. 

GkOKUB \V. liAMHiI.F'U, 

Secretary of War. 

Captain Tomlinsos Fort, 

1st. Reg. Geo. Regulars. 

The Commisson of John P. P'ort, as Second Lieu- 
tenant in the First Georgia Regulars during the Civil 
AVar 1861-65, was burned after the War, in Macon, 
Georgia, together with his ofl5ce and contents. 

K. U. F. 


Memoranda furnished me by Julius L. Brown, of 
Atlanta, Ga : 

Member of Council of Safety. 
White's Hist. Coll. of Georgia, page 687. 
2. McCall's History of Georgia 133. 
2. Stephen's History of Georgia, (Bacon Stephens) 

2. Jones' History of Georgia, 270. 

Resided in Warren County, Georgia, 1793, and was 
one of the commissioners to lay off the County site. 

Watkin's Dig, Laws of Georgia, 526. 

Was appointed Justice of the Peace for Wilkes 
County, Georgia, March 9, 1778. 

Was appointed J. Inferior Court Warren County, 
February 9, 1799. 

Was appointed Justice Inferior Court of Twiggs 
County, Georgia, December 15, 1809. 

Was appointed Justice of the Peace of Twiggs 
County, Georgia, 1818, and again in 1821. 



Was wounded September 11, 1812, at the battle of 
Davis Creek, Florida, and Colonel John Williams 
killed at the same time. 

Williams' History of Florida (1837) 197. 

Diet, of the Army of the U. S. (Gardner) 177, 487 
and 565. 

Fairbank's History of Florida, 256. 

Fairbank's History makes the date May 12, 1812. 



Judge of the Superior Court of Georgia 1827. 
White's Historical Coll. of Georgia 261. 

212 ME>I' ' 

JoSEl'll 1). KANMN,SH. 
SherilT of (ireen County. (ioorpia.OctolHT 2rt, lv»i 
Justice of the I'eace of I'ninam County, <feorh;i*, 
January 20, lhl3. 

Copied from a Voluniir ui «. uiuini-siiHi'* at the 
Georpia State Capitol in Atlanta by Fannie K«irt 
Brown : 

Ahram Fannin, (ient., Knsign. 

William Fannin, Kniti^n. 

James Fannin, K«(]., Captain. 

Moses Fort, Esq., Captain Militia. 

Isham S. Fannin, E.«q., Major Militia. 

Arthur Fort, (ient.. Lieutenant Militia. 

Dates of tlie-e ronimis<'ions issued sometime during 
the war of 18J2. 

copy OF "FAMILY KKCnRL)." 

Taken from the Family Hible of Arthur Fort, Sr., 
who died in Twiggs County, Oeorgia, June l."i, IH.3.3 : 

This Bible is the property of John P. Fort, son of 
Tomlinson Fort. 

This copy is made from the original, February 7, 

"This book was purchased Anno Domini, 1803, 
June 28, by Arthur Fort,'' appears on the fly leaf. 

Susannah Fort was born June 9th, IToo, and died 
December 13, 1820. 

Arthur Fort was born January 16, J 750, and died 
November 16, 1833. 

Richard Whitehead was born 2iith of February, 

Sarah Fort was born 14th of August, 1779. 

Moses Fort was born 17th of March, 1782. 

Arthur Fort was born 3d of April, 1785. 

Tomlinson Fort was born 14th of July, 1787. 


Elizabeth Fort was born 11th of March, 1792. 

Zachariah Fort was born 12th of February, 1795. 

Owen Charlton Fort was born Ist of December, 

In another column headed "Births :" 

Charlton Fort Smith was born 25th of October, 

Seaborn Augustus Smith was born 30th of June, 


Susan Louisa Smith was born 27th of March, 1813. 

Susannah Fort was born 5th of June, 1823. 

Sarah Fort was born 10th of August, 1825, and died 
(which appears to be torn) 6th, 1826. 

In another column under the head of offspring of 
Arthur Fort, Jr., and Mary Newsom, his wife. 

Elizabeth Fort was born 30th of September, 1808. 

Tomlinson Fort was born 18th of January, 1811. 

Martha Fort was born 14th of July, 1813. 

William Fort was born 12th of April, 1816. 

Richard Fort was born 15th of March, 1819. 

James Fort was born 22d of January, 1822. 

Penelope Wicker was born 18th of April, 1818. 

In another column under the head of "Deaths 

Arthur Fort, Jr., died 15th oi June, 1825. 

Mary Fort, wife of Arthur Fort, died 14th of Au- 
gust, 1823. 

Owen Charlton Fort died 24th of August, 1829. 

In another column under the head of "Deaths :" 
Elizabeth Smith departed this life October 2, 1814. 
Moses Fort died December 8, 1845. 

Taken from the Family Bible of Joseph Decker 
Fannin, Sr, who died in Putnam County, Georgia, 
December 21, 1817. 



M. 1). Fannin'8 Book, Juno 18, IMl. Trice f« ."><). 
Eatonton, Georgia," appearB on the Ily leaf. 

Under the head of niarriajjos : 

James Fannin and Klizaheth Satruld w«>r<« married 
18th of October, 1767. 

Littleton Mapp and Ann Fannin wi>rr» married 
July 21, 1786. 

James Allison and Sarah Fannin were married 
September 1, 17!»4. 

William Y. Fannin and C Martin were married 
January 19, 1807. 

Isham S. Fannin and 1'. I'ortrr were married / 
August 2fl, 1809. 

Stephen Bishop and Kliza Fannin Wfrc inurru'd 
April 9, 1811. 

James W. Fannin and Ann I'. Fletch»'r u-t.. riiar- 
ried 11th of February, is] 7. 

J. D. Fannin and Betaey Ijow were married March 
18, 1802. 

James Allis(»n married (^atharine Hand, Septem- 
ber l.'i, 1816. 

John H. Fannin married Mary Wright, February 
3, 1820, of Putnam County. 

A. B. Fannin married 15th of November, 1821, to 
Jane i*. Williamson, of Savannah. 

James Fannin, Sr , was born November 28, 1789. 
Elizabeth Saffold, wife of said James Fannin, was 
born November 12, 1748. 

Ann, daughter, September 18, 1769. 
Sarah, daughter, October 15. 1771. 
William Y. Fannin, son, October 22, 1773. 
J. D. Fannin, son, January 1. 1776. 
Isham S., son, April 17, 1778. 
John H., son, May 14, 1780. 


James W., son, April 29, 1782. 
Jephthah, son, February 17, 1785. 
Eliza, daughter, June 29, 1787. 
A. B., son, November 19, 1789. 
Betsey Low, wife of said J. D. Fannin, June 28, 

Martha L., daughter, January 8, 1804. 

Ann Mapp, daughter, October 31, 1806. 

A son, October 28, 1808. 

James A., son, February 5, 1810. 

Betsey Minerva, a daughter of J. D. Fannin and 
Betsey Fannin, was born May 3, 1812. 

Sally Allison Fannin was born 17th of August, 

Joseph D. Fannin, Jr., was born 22d of May, 1818. 


James Fannin, Sr., November 4th, 1803. 

Elizabeth Fannin, March 30, 1814. 

Littleton Mapp, March 19, 1814. 

Seymore Low the 27th of October, 1814. 

Sally or Sarah Allison, 13th of April, 1815. 

Joseph D. Fannin departed this life on the 21st of 
December, 1817. - 

James A. Fannin on the 4th of January, 1818. 

Isham S. Fannin departed this life on the 26th of 
April, 1817. 

Ann Mapp, sister to Isham S. Fannin, departed 
this life April 18,1817. 

Sally Low, consort of George Low, departed this 
life October 26, 1818. 

Betsey Fannin, wife of J. D. Fannin, died on the 
10th of November, 1821. 

A son of J. D. and B. Fannin, departed life De- 
cember 9, 1808. 

This Bible is the property of and in the possession ^ 


of Kate H. Fort, (laughter of Tomlinson atul Martha 
Low Fort. 


((trandfathcr of Martha Ix)w Fort.) 

In tlie name of (lod, amen L .Limos Fannin, of 
Green County, and State of (teorjria, heinp weak of 
body, but of perfect mind an<l memory, thanks be 
piven unto (iotl ; callinp unto min»l the mortality of 
my body, and knowinp that it is afipointed for all 
men, once to die, do make and ordain this, my last 
will and testament. That is to say, principally and 
first of all, I give and recommend my sonl into the 
hands of Almiphty (Jod that pave it, and my body I 
recommeml to the earth to be buried in <lecent 
Christian burial, at the discretion of my executorB, 
nothinp doubtinp but at the peneral resurrection I 
shall receive the same. 

As touchinp my worhlly estate, 1 allow my wife 
and family to live on the plantation we now live on, 
which I boupht of Winstrell; till the death of my 
wife, and then to be equally <livided between my two 
youngest sons, Jephthah an«l Abraham. And further, 
it is my desire that my wife do keep the stock of all 
kinds and working tools together, to raise and support 
the family. 

As for the rest of my property: To he equally 
divided by the judgment of three, five, or seven men, 
chosen by the legatees, and not divided till their 
mother's decease ; but she is to keep full possession 
of real and personal estate during her life time, only 
I wish a deduction of the amount of One Hundred 
and Fifty Dollars out of my son William's, share of 
my estate, at the division, and my son, Isham and my 
wife to be the Executor and Executrix. 

Ja3IES Faxxek. 


Signed in the presence of us the 4th day of No- 
vember, 1803. 

Nathl Parrot, 
James Parrott, 


Mary Parrott. 


State of Georgia, ) 
Greene County. ] 

1, James McWhorter, Ordinary of Greene County, 
Hereby certify that the within and foregoing is a cor- 
rect and true copy of the last Will and Testament of 
James Fannin, as the same appears from the original 
records of this office. 

Given under my official signature, and seal of 
office, this the 31st day of December, 1900. 

James H. McWhorter, 
Ordinary and Ex-officio Clerk of Greene Co., Ga. 

A History on a Tombstone. 

The following inscription on a tombstone in the 
village Cemetery at Riverhead, Long Island, attracts 
the attention of visitors. Seldom, if ever, has a more 
complete history of a family been carved on a tomb- 
stone : 

"Captain James Fanning died in 1776, in the 
ninety-second year of his age. He was the great- 
grandson of Dominicus Fanning, who was Mayor of a 
city in Ireland under Charles I, and was taken pris- 
oner at the battle of Drogheda in 1649, all the garri- 
son except himself being put to the sword. He was 
beheaded by Oliver Cromwell, his head stuck upon a 
pole at the principal gate of the city, his property 
confiscated because when Charles I made proclamation 
of peace, as member of the Irish Council, he advised 
not to accept unless the British Government would 


secure to the Irish their rolipion, their property, and 
their lives. 

"His son Edmund w;i<; born in Kilkenny, Iridiind, 
married Catharine, daughter of lluph Hays, Karl of 
Connaupht, and emigrated to this country with his fam- 
ily, consisting of his wife, two sons, Thomas and 
William, and two servants, Lahorne and Orna, settled 
in Stonington, ( 'onn. William, in a battle with the 
Indians, was killed by King William, who split hie 
head open with a tomahawk. Thomas had a daughter, 
Catharine Page, and one son, James. This Captain 
Fanning served under (ireat Britain, whose (tovern- 
ment was at war with France, married Hannah Smith, 
of Smithtown. hail five sons and four daughters, viz: 
Phineas, Thomas, (iilbert, Kdmund, James, C/'atharine, 
Bethia, Sally and Nancy. I'liineas had a son, Phineas, 
who graduated at Yale, 17»J8, two of whose sons are 
now living, 185u, viz : William Fanning, in New York 
City, and P. W. Fanning, in Wilmington, N. C. His 
wife, Hannah, son, Thomas, and daughter, (Catharine, 
are buried beside him. (Jilbert settled in Stoning- 
ton, Conn. Edmuntl became Lieutenant-Governor of 
Nova Scotia, where he held large estates. James 
settled on Long Island ; had two sons, John and 
James. The latter was a merchant, residing for many 
years three miles east of Kiverhead ; had five sonB, 
four of whom are now living. The elder, James, died 
at Moriches, in his seventy-second year; two Manas- 
seh and Carl, reside in Riverside Town ; Nathaniel 
resides in the town of Southampton, and the fifth son, 
Joshua Fanning, physician, in Greenport, Southold 
Town. Sally Fanning married Captain Josiah Sup- 
ton ; Catharine married a Mumford, Bethia married a 
Terry, and Nancy married Major John Wickham." 

This inscription was sent to my mother. She was 
greatly interested in it, and had it printed and dis- 
tributed among the family. Shesaidit coincided with 


the family traditions which had been taught her from 
her childhood. An uncle of my grandfather's joined 
the British during the Revolution. This produced a 
great family rupture. My grandfather and his 
brothers disowned him, and ever after spelled their 
names without the "g." 

Brother Tomlinson and Sister Fannie (Mrs. 
Brown), were in New York City in 1883. They made 
a special visit to Riverhead to see this Cemetery. 
Fannie described the Fanning tombs as antique and 
very impressive, as well as most interesting and pic- 
turesque, one dating as far back as 1734. They are 
local celebrities, and are often visited by strangers. 
They have the reputation in the village of being 
haunted, and the children fear to venture near them. 

The monument with this inscription is an upright 
marble slab, about four feet high. They hunted up 
the old stone cutter who made it. He said it was the 
longest inscription he had ever carved. It consisted 
of about eighteen hundred letters. He told them that 
this tomb was erected in 1856 by a descendant of 
James Fanning. 

The monuments were in an excellent state of pre- 
servation in 1883. 

K. H. F. 



CLAY, 1H2S. 

This reception was given by the celel)rated Henry 
Clay, of Kentucky, when father was in Conpressin 
182.S-20. It shows the style of invitation used at that 
time. Mr. Clay visited Milledpeville,(ia., in his preat 
electioneering tour, as candidate for the Presidency 
in 1.S44. Crowds followed him. He electrified the 
people by his stirring eloquence and magnetic pres- 
ence. He was popularly called "Harry of the West." 
A lady friend described to me the visit of Mr. Clay to 
their school, liis charm and fascination and the enthu- 
siasm of the girls over him. He kissed them all, lier- 
self among them. 

Father was seated on the stand from which Mr. 
Clay spoke, in front of the old McComb's Hotel (it is 
still standing) in Milledgeville. Hrother Tomlinson, 
then a very small boy, was taken by father to see, or 
probably to be seen, by the great man. Mr. Clay 
placed his hand upon Tom's head, with, I dare say, 
flattering wishes as to his future. 

I have in my possession an old banner, used at this 
time at one of the great barbecues given in Mr. Clay's 
honor at Eatonton, Georgia. It is of blue satin, with 
a rude picture of Ashland, the home of Mr. Clay. It 
is surrounded by cows and horses, with the verse : 

'Up, Whigs, with your banners, 

And out with thy strength, 

And elect Henry Clay, 

For 3'^our next President." 

On the reverse side is a picture of a steamer under 
full headway, with the verse : 

"Rise, Stephens, rise. 

And in the might of towering rnind. 


r/ /J 

///VV f , 


'A/Ze~t^*^.^^ .<<x-t<?>v*.^ijit»^ <:^^5w-<_a^^f:^^r^ ^ z!^ ^'f^ 



/^^ ^^^?^ 

( Fac-simile. ) 


Once more obey your country's call, 
And serve her in her Council Hall." 

This was Georgia's great statesman, Alexander H. 
Stephens, called "The Great Commoner." He was 
for many years in the lower house in Congress. He 
became afterwards Vice President of the Confederate 

My father, a life time Democrat, was opposed to 
Mr. Clay politically, and also to his views as a states- 
man. K. H. F. 


"Mammy Nancy," also called "Aunt Nancy," for 
nearly fifty years the faithful colored nurse in our 
family. Thoughtful, tender, kind, every memory of 
my childhood is associated with gentle "Mammy 
Nancy." In ante-bellum times almost all well-to-do 
families in the South had among their slaves a trusted 
nurse, an elderly female servant, whom the children 
called "Mammy." To her they came with their 
childish grievances, entertaining for "Mammy" a love 
akin to that given their mothers. At the close of the 
war, the Fort family gave to "Aunt Nancy" a house 
and lot in Milledgeville, Georgia, where she lived and 
died. Colonel Tomlinson Fort and Mrs. Julius Brown 
attended her funeral. 

God bless the memories of the dear old Southern 


The Rev. Wilkes Flagg was born in Virginia about 
1802, was brought to Milledgeville, Georgia, before he 
was grown, and then bought by my father. He became 
an expert black-smith, was taught to read and write 
by the elder white children of the family. He bought 

222 y\V' "F THK FORT AXI> FAXXIS ' ^ ! KS 

himself, his wife and his only ohiM, Wilki-s, .Ir. llo 
bought and owned a home and the black-smith shop 
where he worked, and when the Civil War bejran had 
loaned out from $20,000 to ♦2r>.oOo. 

lie was a I)emorrat, a Baptist preacher and an 
abolitionist. He did not, of course, talk politics or 
abolitionism from his pulpit, but (liscuBRcd those 
quentions with the Fort family, to whom he waa de- 
voted. He would come to the house, generally stood 
with hat off, and talk for hours. He was one of the 
best bred of men and one of the most accomplished 
of house servants, for years had charge of nearly 
every "State dinner" given by the (ioveruors of (Geor- 
gia from Lumpkin down to Brown. 

When Sherman began his "march to the sea," 
Wilkes was intrusted by the Fort family (who had 
removed to Macon), with all their silverware and 
jewelry, burieil it on his own lot, in the floor of an 
old stable, then burnt the stable so as to conceal the 
evidence of the burial of these valuables. When the 
Federal army reached Milledgeville they robbed 
Wilkes of a handsome gold watch and chain, stripped 
his house of everything that they wished, tied him up 
by the thumbs to make him discover the hidden 
valuables which they were told he had, but he refused 
to give up what had been intrusted to him. 

Wilkes believed that the hand of the Lord was in 
the abolition of slavery ; that it was his duty not only 
to lead the colored people as a minister of the gospel, 
but to teach them in a business way how to take their 
places as citizens in the development of the future 
of the new south. He bought a lot and buiJt on it a 
church known to this day as "Flagg's Chapel," and 
established a colony principally of the kins-people of 
himself and his wife, Lavinia. 

No man was better qualified to have made a suc- 
cess of this scheme. For twenty years he worked at 

Faithful nurse in the Fort family for fifty years. 


it, bankrupted himself and died poor, leaving his old 
widow who had lived in luxury for fifty years a pau- 
per. In one of the last conversations I ever had with 
him he said to me that in the latter years of his life 
his experience with the negroes had caused him to 
change his mind on the subject of abolitionism; that 
he was satisfied that the hand of the Lord was in it 
when the white people went over to Africa to bring 
them into slavery under white people, this being the 
only way under Heaven by which they could be 
taught Christianity and civilization ; that they had 
progressed more in slavery than they would have done 
under any other circumstances. He was certain that 
they were not yet in a condition to be set free, and 
he was afraid they could not maintain themselves 
against "race prejudice," except with white people, 
who had been raised with them ; that the master, with 
the property right in the negroes, was necessary to 
prevent a race conflict and the extermination of the 

He was a remarkable man, copper colored, six feet 
high, weighed about 180 pounds, very dignified and 
with the manners of a Chesterfield. As a minister of 
the gospel he was a man of great force, with piety to 
fanaticism. During slavery he was one of the most 
hopeful for the future of the negro, and after twenty 
years of freedom he said freeing the negroes was a 
mistake, a greater misfortune to the slave than to the 
owner. He knew that God did all things well and 
was satisfied, although he could not see it ; that what 
had been done must be for the best or God would not 
have permitted it. His reputation for honesty and 
integrity was as good as any man's. I do not recall 
a negro developed since the Civil War who was more 
highly respected in the community in which he lived 
than the Rev. Wilkes Flagg. 

2'2\ MEMOIRS or Tlir. fort AM) VASniS FAMILIES 

Genoalopy of the families of Tomlinson and Martha 
\jow Fort : 

Arthur Fort, prnntlfathor of Tomlin«on Fort, Sr., 
married Sallio Vs\co. 

Arthur Fort, father ol ToniliUKon Fort, wa« lx)rn in 
North Carolina, .Fanuary lA, 17.*/), A. I), lie niarriiMl 
Su'sannali Tomlin'»on. He died in Twigj^M ('«iunty, 
(leoriiia, Noveml""" ^'' i**'*^ Interred in Twigj^ii 
C«)unty, Georgia. 

Susannah Tomlinson, mother of Tomlinnon Fort, 
Sr., was horn June 9, 17u«'>, A. I). She niarcied fimt 
Kichard Whitehead, havinK one son, aNo called 
Kirhartl Whitehead, born February 20, ITT*'., left a 
widow with one rhild, she married Arthur Fort. 8he 
died December I.'J, 182<>. Interreil in Twiggy County, 
( teorj^ia. 

The followinc children were born to Arthur and 
Susannah Tomlinson Fort : 

Sarah Fort, born Aupuit 14, 177i). She married 
Appleton Kossetter. l)i- 1 -nd interred at Macon, 

Moses Kort, born March 17, 17H2. lie married 
Kudocia Walton Moore. He died and was luterrtd at 
Milledgeville, (ieorpia, December H, 1H46. 

Arthur P'ort, .Jr., born April .*{, 17>.'>. lie married 
Mary Newsom. Ho died .June lo, 182«'j. 

Tomlinson Fort. Sr.. born in Warren County, 
Georgia. July 14. 17s7. He married Martha Ix)W 
Fannin. He died at Milledgeville, Georgia, May 11. 
1851*. Interred in Milledgeville, Georgia. 

Elizabeth Fort, born December 2«, 1780. She 
married Lovett B. Smith. She died October 2, 1814. 

Susannah Fort, Jr., born March 11, 171>2. She 
married first Robert Jemison, who died, after which 
she married Samuel B. Hunter. She died in Bibb 
County, Georgia, 1875. Interred at Macon, Georgia. 

Faithful servant and friend of the Fort family for fifty years. 


Zachariah Cox Fort, born February 12, 1795. He 
He married Amanda Beckam. 

Owen Charlton Fort, born December 14, 1798. He 
never married. He died and was interred in Twiggs 
County, Georgia, August 24, 1829. 

James Fannin, grandfather of Martha Low Fort, 
was born November 28, 1739. He died November 4, 
1803, and was interred in Georgia. 

Elizabeth Saifold, his wife, was born November 
12, 1748. She died March 30, 1814, and was interred 
in Georgia. 

James Fannin and Elizabeth Saffold were married 
Cctober 13, 1767. 

The following children were born to them : 

Ann Fannin, born September 18, 1769. She mar- 
ried Littleton Mapp,, January 21, 1786. She died 
April 18, 1817. 

Sarah Fannin, born October 15, 1771. She married 
James Allison, September 4, 1794. She died Septem- 
ber 13, 1815. 

William Y. Fannin, born October 22, 1773. He 
married C. Martin, January 19, 1807. 

Joseph Decker Fannin, father of Martha Low Fort, 
born January 1, 1776. He died December 21, 1817; 
was interred in Putnam County, Georgia. His wife, 
Betsey Low, was born January 21, 1781. She died 
November 10, 1821, and was interred in Putnam 
County, Georgia. 

John H. Fannin, born May 14, 1780. He married 
Mary Wright, February 3, 1820. 

James W. Fannin, born September 5, 1782. He 
married Ann P. Fletcher, February 11, 1817. 

Jephthah Fannin, born February 17, 1785. He 
married Katie Porter. 

Eliza Fannin, born January 29, 1787. She married 
Stephen Bishop, April 9, 1811. 


22rt MBM 

Inhnm 8. Fannin, tx)rn April 17. 177s. lie marno«l 
TatHy I'ortcr, August 1»V, 1S«A». He din-l '.»n. 

Abram H. Fannin, l>orn Novorahor ll», 17"''.' 11 «» 
married .lano Willianmon, NovomlM«r 15, 1S21. Ho 
(lio<l and wai* intorro*! in Savannah, (Joorjsia. 

Joseph Decker Fannin and Betxey lx)w. parent! 
of Martha I/)w Fort, were married in (ieorgia, Marrh 
16, 1H«>2. 

The followjng children were born them : 

Martha I/»w Fannin. \>orn in I'utnam County, 
(ieorgia, .lanuary b, 1>>«>4. She niarrie«l Tomlin*on 
Fort, October -JS, 1S2I. She died June 14, 18s:t, at 
Macon, Georiri » ^'"' « •- i'f.rr. I .t Milledgcville, 

Ann Mapp Fannin, born October .'11, 18'>fl. She 
married John W. Porter in MadiHon. (Ieorgia, May 0, 
l^-'l. She die<l July 21. lS7o. She was interred at 
Madison, < ieorgia. 

James A. Fannin. \x>tu February .'>. \Sns. Ho died 
.lanuary 4, 1H17. 

Hetsey Minerva i auiuii, b(jrn May U, 1812. She 
married at Madison, (ieorgia. Seaborn Jones .lohnson, 
November 22, ISJl. ."^he died at Talladega, Alabama, 
July 25, 1H90. Sh»» wa^ intprreil at Cave Spring, 

Sallie Allison Fannin, born August 17, ISlo. She 
married Stewart Floyd, at Madison, (ieorgia, Novem- 
ber 22, ls:il. She died at Blakely, Early County, 
Georgia, 1877. She was interred at Madison, Georgia. 

Joseph Decker Fannin, born May 22, 1818. He 
never married. He died in Dougherty (Jounty, Geor- 
gia, May 18, 188G. He was interred at Milledgeville 

Tomlinson Fort and Martha Low Fannin were 
married at Madison, Georgia, by the Kev. Kemem- 


brance Chamberlain (a Presbyterian minister), Octo- 
ber 28, 1824. 

The following children were born to them : 

A son still born, born August 1, 1825. 

Julia Emily Fort, born September 20, 1826. 

George Washington Fort, born March 22, 1828. 

Abram Fannin Fort, born January 12, 1830. 

Ann Elizabeth Fort, born September 3, 1831. 

Martha Fannin Fort, born December 17, 1833. 

Susan Augusta Fort, born January 25, 1836. 

Catharine Haynes Fort, born February 16, 1838. 

Tomlinson Fort, Jr., born April 26, 1839. 

John Porter Fort, born August 16, 1841. 

Sarah Floyd Fopt, born December 23, 1843. 

Eliza Roan Fort, born August 2, 1846. 

Frances Gilmer Fort, born January 29, 1849. 

Marriages of the children of Tomlinson and Martha 

Low Fort : 

Married at Milledgeville, Georgia, by the Rev. 
John Baker, Edward David Huguenin to Julia Emily 
Fort, April 15, 1847. 

Married at Milledgeville, Georgia, by the Rev. Mr. 
Foote, Robert Jarold Morgan to Martha Fannin Fort, 
September 19, 1854. 

Married at Macon, Georgia, by the Rev. William 
Flinn, Harvey Oliver Milton to Sarah Floyd Fort, 
February 1, 1865. 

Married at Macon, Georgia, by the Rev. Benjamin 
Johnson, Julius Lewis Brown to Frances Gilmer Fort, 
November 8, 187L 

Married at Atlanta, Georgia, by the Rev. William 
F. Cook, John Porter Fort to Tallulah Hay Ellis, Oc- 
tober 29, 1881. 

Births of the grandchildren of Tomlinson and 
Martha Low Fort : 

2!28 MBMOIK8 Of TJ'*' ' ""■' . V ii » . w i\ t t \i ii tra 

The children of Kdwaril I)avi<! nud .lulia Kruily 
Ilu^uonin : 

Martha Knnnin IIuf:uonin, )>orn at Millo*l{(<*villc, 
Georgia, Soptomhor Ji, 1H4H. 

Kdward David nii{EUonin,.Fr., Imrn at Millodgoville, 
Georgia, I>eronihor 2, 1M'.». 

Kliza Villard llugiionin. ))orn at .Miilo<ig«<vtllo, 
Georgia, .Fanuary 7, ISol. 

.lulia Kmily iluguenin, born at Maron, Georgia, 
March IS, isr.l. 

. I (ilia Dora llugucnio, born at Mucon. (ieorgia, 
Ortohor 10. |sr,i>. 

i no childrfn of Kobert .larold and Martha Fannin 
Morgan : 

Mary Ix)u Morgan, l)orn at Milledgeville, ( Jeorgia, 
March 2s, ls*>«5. 

Tomlinson Fort Morgan, l>orn at Milletlgevillo, 
(Jeorgia, September 26, ls;>.s. 

.lohn Ellington Morgan, l>orn at Mi-niphin, Tenneii- 
see, February o, ISOl. 

The children of Harvey (Jliver and Sarah Moyd 
Milton : 

Tomlinson Fort Milton, born at Macon, (ieorgia, 
November 2".», ISUWj, 

George Fort Milton, born at Macon, (Jeorgia, .July 
16, 1809. 

The children of Julius Lewis and Frances (iilmer 
Brown : 

Martha Fort Brown, born at Atlanta, (Jeorgia. 

Elizabeth (Jri?ham Brown, born at Atlanta, (ieor- 
gia, March 81, isTr). 

The children of John I'orter and Tallulah Hay 
Fort : 

Susan Ellis Fort, born at Macon, Georgia, August 
12, 1882. 









Kate Haynes Fort, born at Macon, Georgia, De- 
cember 18, 1883. 

Martha Fannin Fort, born at Macon, Georgia, June 
22, 1885. 

Tomlinson Fort, born at Cooleewahee, Dough- 
erty County, Georgia, December 17, 1886. 

John Porter Fort, Jr., born at Mount Airy, Geor- 
gia, October 4, 1888. 

William Ellis Fort, born at Albany, Georgia, De- 
cember 28, 1891. 

Marriages of the grandchildren of Tomlinson and 
Martha Low Fort : 

The children of Edward David and Julia Emily 
Huguenin : 

Married at Macon, Georgia, May 19, 1869, by the 
Rev. Henry Bunn, Eliza Villard Huguenin to Benja- 
min Marcus Tarver. 
y Married at Macon, Georgia, June 14, 1871, by the 
Rev. Benjamin Johnson, Martha Fannin Huguenin to 
Joseph Marshall Johnston. 

Married near Albany, Georgia, November 23, 1874, 
Edward David Huguenin to Mary Priscilla Randall, 
by Rev. F. C. Johnson. 

Married at Macon, Georgia, August 21, 1883, by 
the Rev. Joseph S. Key, Julia Dora Huguenin to John 
Richard Ellis. 

The children of Robert Jarold and Martha Fannin 

Morgan : 

Married at Memphis, Tennessee, February 22, 1881, 
by the Rev. Mr. Mahon, Mary Lou Morgan to John A. 

Married at Oxford, Ohio, May 30, 1892 (second 
marriage), Mrs. Mary Lou Morgan Keightley to Terry 
W. Witt, of Kentucky. 

Children of Harvey Oliver and Sarah Floyd Mil- 
ton : 

Married at Chattan(K>^:a. TenneBBoe, Kehruary s, 
IM'ii, by the Kev. Dr. J. V. MrFornn, (Joortro Fort 
Milton to Caroline Moungor MrCall. 

Hirths of the Kroat-jjrandchildren of TomlinKon 
and Martha l/)w Fort : 

Children of Joseph Mar»hall and Martha llti^tieniit 
.lohnpton : 

liichard \Vil««on .lohnston. horn in New York <'ity, 
.January 7, isTM. 

Martha .lohnston. I.orn on lx)ng island, in New 
York State, Aupust I, isTT 

Children of K«lward Davi*! and Mary I'nscilla 
llu^uenin : 

A 8on still horn, I'.m i-iiiiier 1, I'^T)'.. 

.lulia Kmily lluguenin, born at Maron, (tcorxia, 
September 2".», l^Ts, 

The chU^f"'. ..*■ luhn Kichard and dulia I)ora 

.lohn Hichard Kilis, Jr.. born at Macon, (ieorgia, 
June .'), 1884. 

Kate Fort Ellis, born at Macon, Oeorgia, May 31, 

Kdward Hupuenin Klii". born at Macon, (ieorgia, 
January i;i, WWJ. 

Marshall Johnston Ellis, born at Macon, Georgia, 
May ."), ISIM). 

Tomlinson Fort Ellis, born at Macon, Georgia, 
December 1, LS96. 

The children of George P'ort and Caroline McCall 
Milton : 

George Fort Milton, Jr., born at Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, November 19, 1894. 

Deaths in the family and descendants of Tomlinson 
Fort and his wife, Martha Low Fort : 


Abram Fannin Fort, son of Tomlinson and Martha 
Low Fort, died August 13, 1831. 

Ann Elizabeth Fort, daughter of Tomlinson and 
Martha Low Fort, died April 6, 1833. 

Eliza Roan Fort, daughter of Tomlinson and Martha 
Low Fort, died February, 1847. 

Susan Augusta, afterwards changed to Susan Eliza- 
beth Fort, daughter of Tomlinson and Martha Low 
Fort, died at Milledgeville, Georgia, April 18, 1859. 
Aged 23 years. Interred at Milledgeville, Georgia. 

Tomlinson Fort, Sr., died at Milledgeville, Georgia, 
May 11, 1859, aged 72 years. Interred at Milledge- 
ville, Georgia. 

Edward David Huguenin, Sr., son-in-law of Tom- 
linson and Martha Low Fort, died at Macon, Georgia, 
March 1, 1863, aged 57 years. Interred at Milledge- 
ville, Georgia. 

Julia Emily Huguenin, daughter of Tomlinson 
and Martha Low Fort, died at Macon, Georgia, No- 
vember 30, 1863, aged 37 years. Interred at Milledge- 
ville, Georgia. 

Julia Emily Huguenin, Jr., granddaughter of Tom- 
linson and Martha Low Fort, died at Macon, Georgia, 
August 29, 1864, aged 3 years. Interred at Milledge- 
ville, Georgia. 

Tomlinson Fort Morgan, grandson of Tomlinson 
and Martha Low Fort, died at Memphis, Tennessee, 
April 11, 1860, aged 16 months. Interred in Memphis, 

George Washington Fort, son of Tomlinson and 
Martha Low Fort, died at Macon, Georgia, May 4, 
1866, aged 38 years. Interred at Milledgeville, 

Tomlinson Fort Milton, grandson of Tomlinson and 
Martha Low Fort, died and interred at Villula, Ala- 
bama, October 14, 1866, aged 11 months. 
Elizabeth Griscom Brown, granddaughter of Tom- 


linson and Martha I>ow Fort, died at Macon, (Jeor^ia, 
June 7, 1877, aped 1 I months. Interred at Atlanta, 

Martha Ix)w Fort, wife of Tomlinson Fort, ^Sr., died 
at Macon, (ieorpia, .liine II, \Ssii, aged 71) years. In- 
terred at Milledgevill»», (loorpia. 

Martha Fannin Morgan, danirlitrr of 'I'omlinfion 
and Martha Ivow Fort, died at Memphis, TennesHee, 
February 2'' ISW rxr-od ;').". voars. Interred at Mom- 
phis, Tennr 

Caroline McCall Milton, wife of (ieorge Fort Mil 
ton (grandson of Tomlinson and Martha Fort), died 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, September ',i, l.M>7. Interred 
at Chattanooga, Tennessee. 

Robert .laroM Morgan, son-in-law of Tomlinson 
and Martha Low Fort, died at Aberdeen, Mississippi, 
July '2li, 1S1»1». Interretl at Momphi?», Tennessee. 

Mary Ix)U Morgan Witt, granddaughter of Tomlin- 
son and Martha Ix)W Fort, died in Chicago, Illinois, 
August 1<), IW2. Interred in Henderson, Kentucky. 

232 MK 

liuson an 
.June 7, 1\ 

at Macon, 
terred at 

iind Martii 
February : 
pliis, Tenn 

on ( grand 
it Knoxvil 
it Chattan. 

nd Martht. 
Illy 2;j, IM 

Mary Lo 
on and Ma 
LUgust 1(5, 







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